Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis.
Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy. (+info)
Anatomical structure and surface epithelial distribution in the nasal cavity of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
To validate use of the common cotton-eared marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in inhalation toxicity studies, its nasal morphology was examined. The nasal turbinates each consisted of one maxilloturbinate and one ethmoturbinate: these were more planar in structure than the comparable structures of rodents or dogs. The nasal cavity epithelia comprised squamous epithelium (SE), nasal transitional epithelium (NTE), respiratory epithelium (RE) and olfactory epithelium (OE), listed in order of occurrence from anterior to posterior positions. NTE was distributed as a narrow band lying between SE and RE. OE was limited to the dorsal part of the cavity, which was structurally similar to that of the macaque or man. Overall, this study revealed structural the similarity of the whole nasal cavity in the marmoset to that of macaques or humans. Prediction of nasal cavity changes in man based on extrapolation from experimentally induced changes in the common marmoset therefore seems likely to be feasible, making it a useful animal model for inhalation studies. (+info)
Chronic inhalation carcinogenicity study of commercial hexane solvent in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.
The carcinogenic and chronic toxicity potential of commercial hexane solvent was evaluated in F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice (50/sex/concentration/species) exposed by inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Target hexane vapor concentrations were 0, 900, 3000, and 9000 ppm. There were no significant differences in survivorship between control and hexane-exposed groups, and clinical observations were generally unremarkable. Small, but statistically significant decreases in body weight gain were seen in rats of both sexes in the mid- and high-exposure groups and in high-expsoure female mice. The only noteworthy histopathological finding in rats was epithelial cell hyperplasia in the nasoturbinates and larynx of exposed groups. This response was judged to be indicative of upper respiratory tract tissue irritation. No significant differences in tumor incidence between control and hexane-exposed rats were found. In mice, uterine tissue from the high-exposure females exhibited a significant decrease in the severity of cystic endometrial hyperplasia compared to controls. An increase in the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas was observed in high-exposure female mice. The incidence of liver tumors was not increased in the mid- or low-exposure female mice or in male mice exposed to hexane. An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas was observed in female, but not male mice. This finding was not believed to have been treatment-related because the incidence in the control group was unusually low, and the incidence in exposed groups was not dose-related and was within the historical control range. No other neoplastic changes judged to be treatment-related were observed in tissues from male or female mice. In conclusion, chronic exposure to commercial hexane solvent at concentrations up to 9000 ppm was not carcinogenic to F-344 rats or to male B6C3F1 mice, but did result in an increased incidence of liver tumors in female mice. (+info)
Oxidative stress in cells infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus: a crucial step in the induction of apoptosis.
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Both a noncytopathic (ncp) and an antigenically related cytopathic (cp) BVDV can be isolated from persistently infected animals suffering from mucosal disease. In every case studied so far, the genomic changes leading to the cp biotype correlate with the production of the NS3 nonstructural protein, which, in the ncp biotype, is present in its uncleaved form, NS23. This report shows that, in contrast to ncp BVDV, the cp biotype induces apoptosis in cultured embryonic bovine turbinate cells. Early in the process of apoptosis, cells show a rise in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, which is indicative of oxidative stress. This precedes two hallmarks of apoptosis, caspase activation as shown by cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and DNA fragmentation. Cells were protected from apoptosis only by certain antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole and ebselen), whereas others (N-acetylcysteine, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, lipoic acid, dihydrolipoic acid and tiron) turned out to be ineffective. Antioxidants that protected cells from apoptosis prevented oxidative stress but failed to block virus growth. These observations suggest that oxidative stress, which occurs early in the interaction between cp BVDV and its host cell, may be a crucial event in the sequence leading to apoptotic cell death. Hence, apoptosis is not required for the multiplication of the cp biotype of BVDV. (+info)
Glucocorticosteroids inhibit mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 in human airway inflammation with eosinophilia.
How eosinophils are preferentially recruited to inflammatory sites remains elusive, but increasing evidence suggests that chemokines that bind to the CCR3 participate in this process. In this study, we investigated the transcript levels and chemotactic activity of CCR3-binding chemokines in nasal polyps, a disorder often showing prominent eosinophilia. We found that mRNA expression for eotaxin, eotaxin-2, and monocyte-chemotactic protein-4 was significantly increased in nasal polyps compared with turbinate mucosa from the same patients, or histologically normal nasal mucosa from control subjects. Interestingly, the novel CCR3-specific chemokine, eotaxin-2, showed the highest transcript levels. Consistent with these mRNA data, polyp tissue fluid exhibited strong chemotactic activity for eosinophils that was significantly inhibited by a blocking Ab against CCR3. When patients were treated systemically with glucocorticosteroids, the mRNA levels in the polyps were reduced to that found in turbinate mucosa for all chemokines. Together, these findings suggested an important role for CCR3-binding chemokines in eosinophil recruitment to nasal polyps. Such chemokines, therefore, most likely contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of eosinophil-related disorders; and the reduced chemokine expression observed after steroid treatment might reflect, at least in part, how steroids inhibit tissue accumulation of eosinophils. (+info)
Inflammatory and epithelial responses during the development of ozone-induced mucous cell metaplasia in the nasal epithelium of rats.
Rats repeatedly exposed to high ambient concentrations of ozone develop mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) in the nasal transitional epithelium (NTE). The present study was designed to determine the temporal relationships of ozone-induced inflammatory and epithelial responses and their correlation with subsequent MCM in the NTE of rats. Male F344/N rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone, 8 h/day for 1, 2, or 3 days. Two h prior to sacrifice, all the rats were injected intraperitoneally with 5'-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label epithelial cells undergoing DNA synthesis. Rats exposed to ozone for 1 or 2 days were killed 2 h after the exposure. Rats exposed to ozone for 3 days were killed 2 h or 1, 2, or 4 days after the exposure. Control rats were killed after a 7-day exposure to filtered air. One nasal passage from the anterior nasal cavity of each rat was fixed and processed for light microscopy to morphometrically determine the numeric densities of epithelial cells, neutrophils, and mucous cells, and the amount of intraepithelial mucosubstances in the NTE. The maxilloturbinate from the other nasal passage was processed for analysis of an airway mucin-specific gene (i.e., rMuc-5AC mRNA). Acute ozone exposure induced a rapid increase in rMuc-5AC mRNA levels prior to the onset of MCM, and the increased levels of rMuc-5AC mRNA persisted with MCM. Neutrophilic inflammation coincided with epithelial DNA synthesis and upregulation of rMuc-5AC, but was resolved when MCM first appeared in the NTE. The results of the present study suggest that upregulation of mucin mRNA by acute ozone exposure may be associated with the concurrent neutrophilic inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia in the NTE. Ozone-induced MCM may be dependent on these important pre-metaplastic responses (i.e., mucin mRNA upregulation, neutrophilic inflammation, and epithelial proliferation). (+info)
Polyglutamylation and polyglycylation of alpha- and beta-tubulins during in vitro ciliated cell differentiation of human respiratory epithelial cells.
Tubulins are the major proteins within centriolar and axonemal structures. In all cell types studied so far, numerous alpha- and beta-tubulin isoforms are generated both by expression of a multigenic family and various post-translational modifications. We have developed a primary culture of human nasal epithelial cells where the ciliated cell differentiation process has been observed and quantified. We have used this system to study several properties concerning polyglutamylation and polyglycylation of tubulin. GT335, a monoclonal antibody directed against glutamylated tubulins, stained the centriole/basal bodies and the axonemes of ciliated cells, and the centrioles of non-ciliated cells. By contrast, axonemal but not centriolar tubulins were polyglycylated. Several polyglutamylated and polyglycylated tubulin isotypes were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis, using GT335 and a specific monoclonal antibody (TAP952) directed against short polyglycyl chains. Immunoelectron microscopy experiments revealed that polyglycylation only affected axonemal tubulin. Using the same technical approach, polyglutamylation was shown to be an early event in the centriole assembly process, as gold particles were detected in fibrogranular material corresponding to the first cytoplasmic structures involved in centriologenesis. In a functional assay, GT335 and TAP952 had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ciliary beat frequency. TAP952 had only a weak effect while GT335 treatment led to a total arrest of beating. These results strongly suggest that in human ciliated epithelial cells, tubulin polyglycylation has only a structural role in cilia axonemes, while polyglutamylation may have a function both in centriole assembly and in cilia activity. (+info)
Analysis of ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency using digital high speed imaging: comparison with the photomultiplier and photodiode methods.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the power and recovery stroke of respiratory cilia using digital high speed video imaging. Beat frequency measurements made using digital high speed video were also compared with those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode techniques. METHOD: Ciliated epithelium was obtained by brushing the inferior nasal turbinate of 20 healthy subjects. Ciliated edges were observed by microscopy and the deviation of cilia during their recovery stroke relative to the path travelled during their power stroke was measured. Beat frequency measurements made by digital high speed video analysis were compared with those obtained using the photomultiplier and modified photodiode. RESULTS: Cilia were found to beat with a forward power stroke and a backward recovery stroke within the same plane. The mean angular deviation of the cilia during the recovery stroke from the plane of the forward power stroke was only 3.6 degrees (95% CI 3.1 to 4.1). There was a significant difference in beat frequency measurement between the digital high speed video (13.2 Hz (95% CI 11.8 to 14.6)) and both photomultiplier (12.0 Hz (95% CI 10.8 to 13.1), p = 0.01) and photodiode (11.2 Hz (95% CI 9.9 to 12.5), p<0.001) techniques. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement for the digital high speed video were -2.75 to 5.15 Hz with the photomultiplier and -2.30 to 6.06 Hz with the photodiode. CONCLUSION: Respiratory cilia beat forwards and backwards within the same plane without a classical sideways recovery sweep. Digital high speed video imaging allows both ciliary beat frequency and beat pattern to be evaluated. (+info)