(1/2725) Immunohistochemical expression of mdm2 and p21WAF1 in invasive cervical cancer: correlation with p53 protein and high risk HPV infection.
AIM: To investigate the immunocytochemical staining pattern of mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins in invasive cervical cancer and to determine its relation with the expression of p53 and with the high risk HPV infection. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry for p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 was performed in 31 paraffin embedded sections of invasive cervical cancer. The results were assessed by image analysis, evaluating for each protein the optical density of the immunostained area, scored as percentage of the total nuclear area. The presence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Immunostaining for both mdm2 and p21WAF1 was correlated with p53 expression; however, the correlation between p53 and mdm2 (R = 0.49; p < 0.01) was more significant than between p53 and p21WAF1 (R = 0.31; p < 0.05); the less stringent correlation between p53 and p21WAF1 might reflect the p53 independent mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction. Similar average levels of p53, mdm2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining were found in the presence or absence of high risk HPV-DNA, without significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that mdm2 and p21WAF1 proteins are expressed in invasive cervical cancer and that their immunocytochemical staining pattern is not abrogated by the presence of high risk HPV genomic sequences. (+info)
(2/2725) Microsatellite instability, Epstein-Barr virus, mutation of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor and BAX in gastric carcinomas in Hong Kong Chinese.
Microsatellite instability (MI), the phenotypic manifestation of mismatch repair failure, is found in a proportion of gastric carcinomas. Little is known of the links between MI and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and clinicopathological elements. Examination of genes mutated through the MI mechanism could also be expected to reveal important information on the carcinogenic pathway. Seventy-nine gastric carcinomas (61 EBV negative, 18 EBV positive) from local Hong Kong Chinese population, an intermediate-incidence area, were examined. Eight microsatellite loci, inclusive of the A10 tract of type II transforming growth factor beta receptor (TbetaR-II), were used to evaluate the MI status. MI in the BAX and insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) genes were also examined. High-level MI (>40% unstable loci) was detected in ten cases (12.7%) and low-level MI (1-40% unstable loci) in three (3.8%). High-level MI was detected in two EBV-associated cases (11%) and the incidence was similar for the EBV-negative cases (13%). The high-level MIs were significantly associated with intestinal-type tumours (P = 0.03) and a more prominent lymphoid infiltrate (P = 0.04). Similar associations were noted in the EBV-positive carcinomas. The high-level MIs were more commonly located in the antrum, whereas the EBV-associated carcinomas were mostly located in body. Thirteen cardia cases were negative for both high-level MI and EBV. All patients aged below 55 were MI negative (P = 0.049). Of the high-level MIs, 80% had mutation in TbetaR-II, 40% in BAX and 0% in IGF-IIR. Of low-level MIs, 33% also had TbetaR-II mutation. These mutations were absent in the MI-negative cases. Of three lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas, two cases were EBV positive and MI negative, one case was EBV negative but with high-level MI. In conclusion, high-level MIs were present regardless of the EBV status, and were found in a particular clinicopathological subset of gastric carcinoma patient. Inactivation of important growth regulatory genes observed in these carcinomas confirms the importance of MI in carcinogenesis. (+info)
(3/2725) Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS.
The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences. (+info)
(4/2725) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis following autologous stem cell transplantation.
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angio-destructive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of uncertain etiology, with prominent pulmonary involvement. Recent studies indicate that LYG is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell LPD with large numbers of background reactive T lymphocytes (T cell-rich B cell lymphoma). Although the disease frequently, but not exclusively, occurs in various immunodeficiency states, it has not been reported in association with the transient immunosuppression following autologous bone marrow/peripheral stem cell transplantation (ABM/PSCT). We describe a patient who developed lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung approximately 2 weeks after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Although molecular studies showed no evidence of EBV genome in the biopsy material, the serologic profile with high IgM titers was suggestive of primary EBV infection. Complete radiologic remission occurred following reconstitution of the patient's immune response after a 2-week course of ganciclovir treatment. Despite the apparently low frequency of LPD (both LYG and EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoma) in the ABMT setting, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients whose clinical course following ABMT is complicated by fevers, in the absence of an identifiable infectious process. (+info)
(5/2725) Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women.
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well. (+info)
(6/2725) Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women.
Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk. (+info)
(7/2725) Persistently high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with chronic active EBV infection.
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a severe illness with unusual EBV activation that persists for years, and its pathogenesis is largely unknown. After the creation of an accurate and reproducible polymerase chain reaction system to quantify EBV DNA, virus loads in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were determined in 54 children: 15 with CAEBV, 16 with infectious mononucleosis (IM), and 23 healthy children. Children with CAEBV and those with IM had high virus loads. Lower loads were detected in 47% of seropositive healthy donors. There were two distinct differences between children with CAEBV and those with IM: The former had greater viral replication (10(3)-10(7) copies/2.5x10(5) PBL) than those with IM, and viral replication declined in children with IM whereas active replication persisted for years in subjects with CAEBV. Persisting high virus loads are a possible diagnostic criterion for CAEBV. EBV loads may enable classification and prognosis of EBV infections. (+info)
(8/2725) B cell response after MMTV infection: extrafollicular plasmablasts represent the main infected population and can transmit viral infection.
The immune response to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) relies on the presentation of an MMTV-encoded superantigen by infected B cells to superantigen-specific T cells. The initial extrafollicular B cell differentiation involved the generation of B cells expressing low levels of B220. These B220low B cells corresponded to plasmablasts that expressed high levels of CD43 and syndecan-1 and were CD62 ligand- and IgD-. Viral DNA was detected nearly exclusively in these B220low B cells by PCR, and retroviral type-A particles were observed in their cytoplasm by electron microscopy. An MMTV transmission to the offspring was also achieved after transfer of B220low CD62 ligand- CD43+ plasmablasts into noninfected females. These data suggest that B220low plasmablasts, representing the bulk of infected B cells, are capable of sustaining viral replication and may be involved in the transmission of MMTV. (+info)