Combination interferon-alpha2a and 13-cis-retinoic acid enhances radiosensitization of human malignant glioma cells in vitro.
We investigated the individual and combined effects of cis-retinoic acid (CRA) and/or IFN-alpha (IFN) and/or radiation therapy (RT) against a human glioma cell line (American Type Culture Collection; U373MG) to evaluate the possible radiosensitization properties of these agents in vitro. Glioma cells were incubated for 24 h in 96-well plates (2 x 10(2) cells/well) in standard culture medium. Sets of U373 (n = 12) were exposed to CRA (3 x 10(6) microM), IFN (25 units/ml), CRA plus IFN, or standard culture medium. After an additional 24 h of incubation, the U373 cells were subjected to increasing radiation doses (up to 16 Gy). Glioma cells were harvested 92 h after irradiation, and cell survival curves were determined from [3H]thymidine incorporation data (over the last 24 h). The experiment was repeated for both the untreated control group and the combined CRA/IFN group. To verify the [3H]thymidine assays, a clonogenic assay was also performed. Single cell suspensions of U373 cells were plated out in six-well plates (n = 3). After chemical and RT treatment, colonies of 50 cells or more were counted, and cell survival curves were generated as fractions of nonirradiated controls. The amount of RT (in Gy) that would cause a 50% survival fraction (lethal dose 50 or LD50) was calculated from the survival curves by regression analysis. The following LD50s were obtained: [table: see text] The results showed that for both the [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and the clonogenic assay, the combination of IFN/CRA rendered U373 cells more susceptible to ionizing radiation than the untreated control or either single agent alone. (+info)
Inhibition of aberrant proliferation and induction of apoptosis in HER-2/neu oncogene transformed human mammary epithelial cells by N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide.
Epithelial cells from non-cancerous mammary tissue in response to exposure to chemical carcinogens or transfection with oncogenes exhibit hyperproliferation and hyperplasia prior to the development of cancer. Aberrant proliferation may, therefore, represent a modifiable early occurring preneoplastic event that is susceptible to chemoprevention of carcinogenesis. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR), has exhibited preventive efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo breast cancer models, and represents a promising chemopreventive compound for clinical trials. Clinically relevant biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effects of HPR, however, are not fully understood. Experiments were performed on preneoplastic human mammary epithelial 184-B5/HER cells derived from reduction mammoplasty and initiated for tumorigenic transformation by overexpression of HER-2/neu oncogene, to examine whether HPR inhibits aberrant proliferation of these cells and to identify the possible mechanism(s) responsible for the inhibitory effects of HPR. Continuous 7-day treatment with HPR produced a dose-dependent, reversible growth inhibition. Long-term (21 day) treatment of 184-B5/HER cells with HPR inhibited anchorage-dependent colony formation by approximately 80% (P < 0.01) relative to that observed in the solvent control. A 24 h treatment with cytostatic 400 nM HPR produced a 25% increase (P = 0.01) in G0/G1 phase, and a 36% decrease (P = 0.01) in S phase of the cell cycle. HPR treatment also induced a 10-fold increase (P = 0.02) in the sub-G0 (apoptotic) peak that was down-regulated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with HPR resulted in a 30% reduction of cellular immunoreactivity to tyrosine kinase, whereas immunoreactivity to p185HER remained essentially unaltered. HPR exposure resulted in time-dependent increase in cellular metabolism of the retinoid as evidenced by increased formation of the inert metabolite N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-retinamide (MPR) and progressive increase in apoptosis. Thus, HPR-induced inhibition of aberrant proliferation may be caused, in part, by its ability to inhibit HER-2/neu-mediated proliferative signal transduction, retard cell cycle progression and upregulate cellular apoptosis. (+info)
RSR13, an allosteric effector of haemoglobin, and carbogen radiosensitize FSAII and SCCVII tumours in C3H mice.
Pre-clinical evaluation has demonstrated that 2-[4-(((3,5-dimethylanilino)carbonyl)methyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropi onic acid (RSR13) acts as an allosteric effector of haemoglobin (Hb). RSR13 binding to Hb results in decreased haemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) affinity, improved tumour oxygenation, and enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in several experimental tumour systems. In the present work, ex vivo clonogenic survival analyses are applied in two murine tumour systems to characterize the relationship between the magnitude of decrease in Hb-O2 affinity and radiosensitization, the influence of inspired pO2 upon this effect, and the efficacy of combining RSR13 and radiation during a course of repeated radiation exposures. For FSaII tumours in C3H mice breathing air, 100 mg kg(-1) RSR13 administered intraperitoneally produced an enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.3, but there was marked desensitization at a RSR13 dose of 300 mg kg(-1) (ER 0.6). The most likely reason for the increased radioresistance was insufficient oxygen loading of Hb in the pulmonary circulation due to reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity because carbogen breathing combined with 300 mg kg(-1) RSR13 reversed the effect and produced an ER of 1.8. In SCCVII tumours in C3H mice irradiated with eight fractions of 2.5 Gy over 4 days, the surviving fraction was reduced to 58-67% of control values when RSR13 was combined with radiation on days 1 and 2, days 3 and 4, or days 1-4. These results confirm that combining RSR13 and irradiation within a fractionated course of clinically relevant low-dose exposures provides significant radiosensitization. Additional preclinical experimentation is needed to define better the optimum dose-scheduling conditions for clinical applications. (+info)
Cyclin D1 overexpression enhances radiation-induced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in a breast tumor cell line.
Overexpression of cyclin D1, a G1 cell cycle regulator, is often found in many different tumor types, such as breast carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The overexpression of this protein is, in several cases, associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, the effect of cyclin D1 on radiosensitivity was investigated in a breast tumor cell line, MCF7, containing a cyclin D1 gene construct under the control of a tetracycline-sensitive regulator. MCF7 cells cultured without tetracycline resulted in a 6-fold increase in the cyclin D1 protein. Cyclin D1-overexpressing MCF7 cells were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the nonoverexpressing counterparts. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells also exhibited a higher induction of apoptosis. Treatment with a dose of 5 Gy resulted in a rapid increase of p53 and p21 in the cyclin D1-overexpressing cells. Nonoverexpressing cells showed a more transient expression of these proteins after ionizing radiation. A pronounced G2-M block was observed in both cell lines. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells were, however, released earlier from the block than the control cells. These data suggest that overexpression of cyclin D1 alters sensitivity toward ionizing radiation by modulating gamma-radiation-induced G2-M transition. (+info)
Malignant transformation of p53-deficient astrocytes is modulated by environmental cues in vitro.
The early incidence of p53 mutation in astrocytomas suggests that it plays an important role in astrocyte transformation. Astrocytes isolated from homozygous p53 knockout mice grow rapidly, lack contact inhibition, and are immortal. Here we tested whether the loss of p53 is sufficient for progression to tumorigenicity of astrocytes. We grew primary astrocytes under three conditions for over 120 population doublings and assessed their antigenic phenotype, chromosome number, and expression of glioma-associated genes as well as their ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors s.c. and intracranially in nude mice. Under two conditions (10% FCS and 0.5% FCS plus 20 ng/ml EGF), cells acquired the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and tumors in nude mice, and this was accompanied by the expression of genes, including epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta, protein kinase Cdelta, and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are known to be aberrantly regulated in human astrocytomas. Under the third condition (0.5% FCS plus 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor), astrocytes gained the ability to form colonies in soft agarose and had abnormal chromosome numbers similar to cells in the first two conditions but did not form tumors in nude mice or overexpress glioma-associated genes. These data provide experimental evidence for the idea that the malignant progression initiated by the loss of p53 may be subject to modulation by extracellular environmental influences. (+info)
In vitro radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts derived from head and neck carcinomas: mutual relationship and correlation with clinical data.
The aim was to characterize the variation in the cellular in vitro radiosensitivities in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and to test for a possible correlation between different measures of radiosensitivity and the clinical and histopathological data. Cellular in vitro radiosensitivities were assessed in tumour biopsies from 71 patients using the modified Courtenay-Mills soft agar clonogenic assay combined with an immunocytochemical analysis. Radiosensitivity was quantified as the surviving fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy irrespective of cell type (overall SF2), or based on identification of cell type (tumour cell SF2, fibroblast SF2). Sixty-three biopsies were from primary tumours, and eight were from recurrences. Overall plating efficiency ranged from 0.005 to 1.60% with a median of 0.052%. The majority of the colonies obtained from the biopsies were fibroblast marker-positive; the proportion of tumour marker-positive colonies ranged from 1 to 88% with a median of 15%. The median overall SF2 was 0.47 (range 0.24-0.96), the median tumour cell SF2 was 0.50 (range 0.11-1.0) and the median fibroblast SF2 was 0.49 (range 0.24-1.0). Comparing data from independent experiments, the overall SF2 was significantly correlated with the SF2 of fibroblasts (2P = 0.006) but not with the tumour cell SF2. The tumour cell and fibroblast radiosensitivities measured in the same individuals were not correlated (r= 0.06, 95% CI [-0.19, 0.30]):This finding seems to preclude a strong correlation between the radiosensitivity of tumour cells and fibroblasts. Concerning the clinical characteristics, neither of the measures of tumour radiosensitivity was correlated with T- and N-category, stage, tumour size, sex and age. However, the tumour cell radiosensitivity decreased with increasing grade of histopathological differentiation (2P = 0.012). The same tendency was found in two independent analyses of the same patient material. This correlation was not significant in case of the overall SF2 or the fibroblast SF2. (+info)
Up-regulation of E-cadherin by an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody in lung cancer cell lines.
Many human epithelial carcinomas are characterized by the overexpression and constitutive activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) via an autocrine signaling loop. We have investigated the effects of a ligand-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the EGF-R LA1 on selected parameters of human lung cancer cell lines (H322 and H661) and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Using Western blot analysis, we show that H322 and NHBE cell lines express comparable levels of EGF-R/p170erbB-1. The LA1 mAb against EGF-R inhibits growth, induces differentiation to a more epithelial phenotype, reduces the constitutive activation of EGF-R, and upregulates epithelial cadherin glycoprotein expression in H322 and NHBE cells. In contrast, LA1 had no effect on either growth, differentiation, receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, or the expression of adhesion molecules in H661 cells, which is consistent with our finding that this cell line does not express detectable levels of EGF-R. These studies demonstrate that a blocking anti-EGF-R mAb can regulate proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in human bronchial epithelial cells. Our findings suggest possible therapeutic avenues for the treatment of invasive carcinomas via the blockade of EGF-R with antibodies. (+info)
Influence of O6-benzylguanine on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea in mice.
Previous studies have demonstrated that novel molecular combinations of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and 2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (CNU) have good preclinical activity and may exert less myelotoxicity than the clinically used nitrosoureas such as 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). This study examined the effect of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) depletion by the pseudosubstrate O6-benzylguanine (BG) on the anti-tumour activity and normal tissue toxicity in mice of three such molecular combinations, in comparison with BCNU. When used as single agents at their maximum tolerated dose, all three novel compounds produced a significant growth retardation of BCNU-resistant murine colon and human breast xenografts. This in vivo anti-tumour effect was potentiated by BG, but was accompanied by severe myelotoxicity as judged by spleen colony forming assays. However, while tumour resistance to BCNU was overcome using BG, this was at the expense of enhanced bone marrow, gut and liver toxicity. Therefore, although this ATase-depletion approach resulted in improved anti-tumour activity for all three 5-FU:CNU molecular combinations, the potentiated toxicities in already dose-limiting tissues indicate that these types of agents offer no therapeutic advantage over BCNU when they are used together with BG. (+info)