Support of the anterior column with allografts in tuberculosis of the spine.
Fresh-frozen allografts from the humerus were used to help to stabilise the spine after anterior decompression for tuberculosis in 47 children with a mean age of 4.2 years (2 to 9). The average angle of the gibbus, before operation, was 53 degrees; at follow-up, two years later, it was 15 degrees. Rejection of the graft or deep sepsis was not seen. Cross trabeculation between the allograft and the vertebral body was observed at six months, with remodelling occurring at approximately 30 months. (+info)
A five-year assessment of controlled trials of in-patient and out-patient treatment and of plaster-of-Paris jackets for tuberculosis of the spine in children on standard chemotherapy. Studies in Masan and Pusan, Korea. Fifth report of the Medical Research Council Working Party on tuberculosis of the spine.
In two centres in Korea 350 patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine were allocated at random: in Masan to in-patient rest in bed (IP) for six months followed by out-patient treatment or to ambulatory out-patient treatment (OP) from the start; in Pusan to out-patient treatment with a plaster-of-Paris jacket (J) for nine months or to ambulatory treatment without any support (No J). All patients recieved chemotherapy with PAS with isoniazid for eighteen months, either supplemented with streptomycin for the first three months (SPH) or without this supplement (PH), by random allocation. The main analysis of this report concerns 299 patients (eighty-three IP, eighty-three OP, sixty-three J, seventy No J; 143 SPH, 156 PH). Pre-treatment factors were similar in both centres except that the patients in Pusan had, on average, less extensive lesions although in a greater proportion the disease was radiographically active. One patient (J/SPH) died with active spinal disease and three (all No J/SPH) with paraplegia. A fifth patient (IP/PH) who died from cardio respiratory failure also had pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-three patients required operation and/or additional chemotherapy for the spinal lesion. A sinus or clinically evident abscess was either present initially or developed during treatment in 41 per cent of patients. Residual lesions persisted in ten patients (four IP, two OP, one J, three No J; six SPH, four PH) at five years. Thirty-two patients had paraparesis on admission or developing later. Complete resolution occurred in twenty on the allocated regimen and in eight after operation or additional chemotherapy or both. Of the remaining four atients, all of whom had operation and additional chemotherapy, three died and one still had paraparesis at five years. Of 295 patients assessed at five years 89 per cent had a favourable status. The proportions of the patients responding favourably were similar in the IP (91 per cent) and OP (89 per cent) series, in the J (90 per cent) and No J (84 per cent) series and in the SPH (86 per cent) and PH (92 per cent) series. (+info)
Hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine.
Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified. (+info)
We report a case of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vertebral osteomyelitis in a 79-year-old man 2.5 years after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. The recovered isolate resembled M. tuberculosis biochemically, but resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) rendered that diagnosis suspect. High-pressure liquid chromatographic studies confirmed the diagnosis of M. bovis BCG infection. The patient was originally started on a four-drug antituberculous regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and PZA. When susceptibility studies were reported, the regimen was changed to isoniazid and rifampin for 12 months. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to a skilled nursing facility for 3 months, where he underwent intensive physical therapy. Although extravesical adverse reactions are rare, clinicians and clinical microbiologists need to be aware of the possibility of disseminated infection by M. bovis BCG in the appropriate setting of clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigation. (+info)
Bone scintigraphy in tuberculous spondylodiscitis.
Tuberculous affection of the spine can present in different ways. Plain radiographs may fail to show any abnormality. Bone scintigraphy can be a very useful tool in the diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculous spondylodiscitis. This is a retrospective study of 40 patients in whom bone scan was performed using 99mTc-MDP (technetium methylene diphosphonate) before starting anti-tuberculous therapy or any surgical intervention. Four different types of uptake were noted. The uptake was abnormal in 38 out of 40 patients, giving a sensitivity of 95%. Multicentricity was picked up in 25% of cases. No skull lesion was noticed in any of these patients. Rib lesions were found in six patients (ten ribs affected). The rib lesion was always a typical band pattern. This paper outlines the advantages as well as limitations of bone scan in tuberculous affection of the spine. (+info)
Five-year assessment of controlled trials of short-course chemotherapy regimens of 6, 9 or 18 months' duration for spinal tuberculosis in patients ambulatory from the start or undergoing radical surgery. Fourteenth report of the Medical Research Council Working Party on Tuberculosis of the Spine.
The five-year assessment of three randomised trials of short course (6, 9 or 18 months) chemotherapy for tuberculosis of the spine is reported. In Hong Kong patients were randomised to isoniazid plus rifampicin (HR) daily for 6 or 9 months, combined with radical surgical resection with bone grafting and streptomycin for 6 months for all patients. In Madras patients were randomised to chemotherapy with HR for 6 or 9 months, or 6 months HR chemotherapy combined with surgical resection. In Korea all patients were ambulatory and were randomised to different regimens of chemotherapy 6 or 9 months HR, or 9 or 18 months isoniazid plus ethambutol. (EH) or isoniazid plus PAS (PH). In all centres the results of the 6- and 9-month regimens of HR were excellent and similar to the 18-month EH and PH regimens. The 9-month EH/PH regimens were clearly inferior. In Hong Kong excellent results were achieved by the radical resection. The disease was however less extensive than in Madras, where the results after surgery were no better than with ambulatory chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the critical factor in the management of tuberculosis of the spine. Efforts should be concentrated on ensuring that appropriate regimens are given under adequate supervision. (+info)
Correlation of canal encroachment with neurological deficit in tuberculosis of the spine.
CT scans of fifteen patients with tuberculosis of the spine without neurological deficit were analysed for canal encroachment. We calculated that up to 76% encroachment of the spinal canal by tubercular pathological tissue is compatible with undisturbed neural status. (+info)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.
Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas. (+info)