Tuberculosis presenting as deep vein thrombosis.
We present two cases, women of 21 and 60 years old, who presented with deep vein thrombosis. Both cases had retroperitoneal para-aortic and iliac lymph node enlargement without any malignancy or other predisposing thrombophilic factors. Investigations revealed tubercular aetiology of the lymph nodes causing venae caval obstruction. (+info)
Obstetrical outcomes among women with extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tuberculosis, especially extrapulmonary tuberculosis, is increasing worldwide. Because information on the outcome of pregnancy among women with extrapulmonary tuberculosis is limited, we studied the course of pregnancy and labor and the perinatal outcome in these women and their infants. METHODS: From 1983 to 1993, we followed 33 pregnant women who had extrapulmonary tuberculosis (12 with tuberculous lymphadenitis and 9 with intestinal, 7 with skeletal, 2 with renal, 2 with meningeal, and 1 with endometrial tuberculosis) through their deliveries. Of the 33, 29 received antituberculosis treatment during pregnancy. The antenatal complications, intrapartum events, and perinatal outcomes were compared with those among 132 healthy pregnant women without tuberculosis who were matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Tuberculous lymphadenitis did not affect the course of pregnancy or labor or the perinatal outcome. However, as compared with the control women, the 21 women with tubercular involvement of other extrapulmonary sites had higher rates of antenatal hospitalization (24 percent vs. 2 percent, P< 0.001), infants with low Apgar scores (< or =6) soon after birth (19 percent vs. 3 percent, P=0.01), and low-birth-weight (<2500 g) infants (33 percent vs. 11 percent, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis that is confined to the lymph nodes has no effect on obstetrical outcomes, but tuberculosis at other extrapulmonary sites does adversely affect the outcome of pregnancy. (+info)
Shortening the duration of treatment for cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis.
The aim of the study was to determine the optimal duration of treatment for patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis. The Medline database was searched for relevant articles published between 1978-1997. Inclusion criteria were study populations of patients with predominantly cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis in whom the diagnosis had been confirmed bacteriologically and/or histologically, or was made probable by using clinical and laboratory markers. Treatment management had to include at least isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide and a follow-up of at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Patients with resistance to rifampicin and pyrazinamide and previous treatment for tuberculosis were excluded. The number of patients who relapsed after treatment was calculated. The study population in eight out of the 35 articles retrieved were suitable for analysis. Some concerned comparative studies. There were eight treatment schedules of 6 months' duration and three schedules of 9 months' duration. Treatment for 6 months resulted in a tuberculous lymphadenitis relapse rate of 13/422=3.3% (95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.5), with a mean follow-up of 31 months after completion of treatment. Treatment for 9 months resulted in a relapse rate of 3/112=2.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-7.8), with a mean follow-up of 20 months. Despite the limitations of the literature available, 6 months of therapy is probably sufficient for patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis. (+info)
Spontaneous oesophageal perforation due to mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis - atypical presentation of tuberculosis.
Spontaneous non-traumatic oesophageal perforation secondary to bursting of a mediastinal tuberculous abscess into the oesophagus is rare. The diagnosis is delayed, as perforation remains localised due to mediastinal lymph nodes. Patient can be effectively managed by paraoesophageal drainage of the mediastinal abscess and oesophageal diversion. (+info)
A patient with a peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis mimicking pancreatic pseudocyst is reported, which was diagnosed on exploration to be a tuberculous cold abscess. The patient responded to antituberculous drugs after drainage of the cold abscess. (+info)
Comparison of in house polymerase chain reaction with conventional techniques for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in granulomatous lymphadenopathy.
AIMS: To evaluate the usefulness of the devR based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in lymph node aspirates and tissues of lymphadenitis and to compare PCR with conventional diagnostic techniques. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Coded specimens of fine needle aspirates and biopsies from 22 patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis, 14 patients with non-tubercular lymphadenitis, and nine patients with granulomatous lymphadenitis were processed and subjected to analysis by PCR, smear microscopy, M tuberculosis culture, histology, and cytology. RESULTS: Tuberculous lymphadenitis was correctly diagnosed by PCR in 18 patients, by culture in five patients, by histology in 13 patients, and by cytology in seven patients. PCR gave two false positive results in 14 patients with non-tubercular lymphadenitis. The sensitivity of the conventional techniques was significantly higher with biopsies (17 of 22 specimens; 77%) than with fine needle aspirates (nine of 22 specimens; 41%). However, the sensitivity of PCR was not significantly higher with biopsies (68%) in comparison with fine needle aspirates (55%). The sensitivity of either biopsy PCR or fine needle aspirate PCR was not significantly different from that of either histology combined with culture or cytology combined with culture. The overall combined specificity of PCR was 86%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA was detected in six of nine patients with granulomatous lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION: PCR is the most sensitive single technique available to date for the demonstration of M tuberculosis in specimens derived from patients with a clinical suspicion of tuberculous lymphadenitis. The value of PCR lies in its use as an adjunct test in the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis, particularly in those patients where conventional methods fail. Because fine needle aspiration is not an invasive procedure, it is the procedure of choice, and PCR should be performed initially on these samples. Excisional biopsy histology and PCR should be recommended only for patients in whom fine needle aspirate PCR is negative or when there is discrepancy with the clinical impression. (+info)
Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in children.
METHODS: The clinical and epidemiological features of 102 children with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed between 1982 and 1998 at P & A Kyriakou Children's Hospital were reviewed. RESULTS: During the past decade, a 50% increase of admissions for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis was observed. The source of infection was disclosed in 48 patients. Diagnoses included superficial lymphadenitis (n = 48), pleural effusion (n = 27), meningitis (n = 16), skeletal tuberculosis (n = 5), miliary tuberculosis (n = 3), abdominal tuberculosis (n = 2), and pericarditis (n = 1). Miliary tuberculosis developed in infants, lymphadenitis and meningitis in preschool children, and pleural effusion and skeletal tuberculosis in older children. None of the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis died; however, six patients with meningitis developed permanent neurological deficits. In these patients, antituberculous treatment was introduced at a median of six days following admission as compared with one day in patients with no complications. Poverty, immigration, and limited access to medical services were common among patients with meningitis. (+info)
Mycobacterium interjectum as causative agent of cervical lymphadenitis.
A mycobacterial strain isolated from a lymph node of a 3-year-old female with cervical lymphadenitis was identified as Mycobacterium interjectum by means of sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Analysis of this case and previously published cases demonstrates the importance of M. interjectum as a causative agent of cervical lymphadenitis in young children. (+info)