Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord: a case report.
Intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tuberculoma of the spinal cord is uncommon entity and moreover, few reports have been documented on concurrent IDEM and intracranial tuberculomas. Authors report a case of IDEM spinal tuberculoma having intracranial lesion simultaneously. A 49-year-old woman suffered from paraparesis and urinary incontinence while being given medical treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an IDEM mass lesion between the T1 and T2 spinal levels, and multiple intracranial tuberculous granulomas. Surgical resection of the IDEM tuberculoma followed by anti-tuberculous medication resulted in good outcome. (+info)
Restraining mycobacteria: role of granulomas in mycobacterial infections.
The generation of prolonged immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires not only an antigen-specific IFN-gamma-producing T cell response, including both CD4 and CD8 T cells, but also the generation of protective granulomatous lesions, whereby the close apposition of activated T cells and macrophages acts to contain bacterial growth. The importance of the granulomatous lesion in controlling this immune response and in limiting both tissue damage and bacterial dissemination has been considered a secondary event but, as the present review illustrates, is no less important in surviving mycobacterial infection than an antigen-specific T-cell response. The formation of a protective granuloma involves the orchestrated production of a host of chemokines and cytokines, the upregulation of their receptors along with upregulation of addressins, selectins and integrins to coordinate the recruitment, migration and retention of cells to and within the granuloma. In the present review, the principal components of the protective response are outlined and the role of granuloma formation and maintenance in mediating prolonged containment of mycobacteria within the lung is addressed. (+info)
A novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mimetic peptide prevents recrudescence of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infection in CD4+ T cell-depleted mice.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is required to control mycobacterial infections, but its therapeutic value is limited by its in vivo instability and toxicity. The efficacy of a nontoxic TNF-mimetic peptide (TNF70-80) was tested in mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Callette-Guerin (BCG). In vitro TNF70-80 and recombinant human TNF (hTNF) acted with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to reduce bacterial replication and to induce synthesis of bactericidal nitric oxide (NO) in BCG-infected, bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. The dose-dependent inhibitory effect on bacterial replication was blocked by neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma and anti-hTNF mAbs. Further, n-monomethyl-L-arginine (n-MMA) and a soluble TNF-receptor I (TNFRI-IgG) blocked bacterial growth and NO synthesis. Therefore, the peptide acted with IFN-gamma via induction of NO synthase and signaled through TNFRI receptors. Concomitant in vivo treatment with TNF70-80 or hTNF prevented reactivation of chronic BCG infection in mice depleted of CD4+ T cells by injecting anti-CD4 antibodies. Granuloma number and bacterial load were comparable in treated, T cell-depleted mice and in chronically infected, intact animals. Thus, TNF70-80 and hTNF can modulate recrudescent BCG infection in CD4+ T cell-deficient mice. (+info)
Sarcoid reaction in primary tumor of bronchogenic large cell carcinoma accompanied with massive necrosis.
A 49-year-old woman consulted our hospital for evaluation of a tumor with cavitation in the S6 segment of the right lung. She was given a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculoma because percutaneous needle aspiration cytology revealed epithelioid cells with a background of necrosis. However, a diagnosis of large cell carcinoma with central necrosis (p-T2NOM0) was established by thoracoscopic lung biopsy six months later. Pathological findings of surgical resection specimens showed that epithelioid cell granulomas adjacent to the neoplasm had a sarcoid reaction and the necrosis was related to the rapidly growing tumor because there was no clinical evidence of systemic sarcoidosis and pulmonary mycobacterial or fungal infection. This is the first report in which sarcoid reactions were recognized in a primary large cell carcinoma. (+info)
Granulomatous skin lesions in moray eels caused by a novel Mycobacterium species related to Mycobacterium triplex.
An outbreak of granulomatous dermatitis was investigated in a captive population of moray eels. The affected eels had florid skin nodules concentrated around the head and trunk. Histopathological examination revealed extensive granulomatous inflammation within the dermis and subcutaneous fascial plane between the fat and axial musculature. Acid-fast rods were detected within the smallest lesions, which were presumably the ones that had developed earliest. Eventually, after several months of incubation at room temperature, a very slowly growing acid-fast organism was isolated. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified it as a Mycobacterium species closely related (0.59% divergence) to M. triplex, an SAV mycobacterium. Intradermal inoculation of healthy green moray eels with this organism reliably reproduced the lesion. Experimentally induced granulomatous dermatitis appeared within 2 weeks of inoculation and slowly but progressively expanded during the 2 months of the experiment. Live organisms were recovered from these lesions at all time points, fulfilling Koch's postulates for this bacterium. In a retrospective study of tissues collected between 1993 and 1999 from five spontaneous disease cases, acid-fast rods were consistently found within lesions, and a nested PCR for the rRNA gene also demonstrated the presence of mycobacteria within affected tissues. (+info)
Intracranial tuberculoma--an increasing problem in Britain.
Ten cases of intracranial tuberculoma are described. These were investigated and treated at one centre in a 20 year period. The last five cases have occurred in immigrant Asians in the last five years, suggesting an increasing incidence. Diagnostic pointers are discussed and the value of brain scanning emphasized. (+info)
Choroidal tuberculoma with membranous glomerulonephritis.
We report treatment of a 24-year-old man with membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) who developed a solitary choroidal tuberculoma in association with miliary tuberculosis during steroid therapy. In June 1995, the patient had developed nephrotic syndrome. He had refused renal biopsy at that time. So we treated him with corticosteroids having assumed a diagnosis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome. After initial corticosteroids and diuretics therapy for 5 months, his generalized edema resolved but proteinuria (3 positive) continued, suggesting the presence of other forms of glomerulonephritis. Renal biopsy performed in January 1996. The patient was diagnosed as having MGN. The patient was closely observed over a period of 34 months and remained stable without steroid therapy. However at 34 months, generalized edema was again noted and steroid therapy at high dosage was initiated. After 5 months of steroid therapy, he developed miliary tuberculosis and a solitary choroidal mass. An antituberculosis chemotherapeutic regimen was started and after a further 5 months, all clinical symptoms and signs of the pulmonary lesion were resolved and a measurable shrinking of the choroidal mass was recorded. (+info)
Pituitary tuberculoma--a case report.
Pituitary tuberculomas, mimicking adenomas are very unusual. We describe a rare case of a patient with an exclusively intrasellar mass, and who presented with severe headaches and loss of libido. The lesion was approached trans-sphenoidally and pathological examination revealed a tuberculoma. Complete removal was achieved and the patient followed on anti-tuberculous therapy. (+info)