Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis in the biocontrol strain CHA0 of Pseudomonas fluorescens: role of tryptophan side chain oxidase.
Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 is an effective biocontrol agent against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. In this study, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in strain CHA0 was investigated. Two key enzyme activities were found to be involved: tryptophan side chain oxidase (TSO) and tryptophan transaminase. TSO was induced in the stationary growth phase. By fractionation of a cell extract of strain CHA0 on DEAE-Sepharose, two distinct peaks of constitutive tryptophan transaminase activity were detected. A pathway leading from tryptophan to IAA via indole-3-acetamide, which occurs in Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi, was not present in strain CHA0. IAA synthesis accounted for less than or equal to 1.5% of exogenous tryptophan consumed by resting cells of strain CHA0, indicating that the bulk of tryptophan was catabolized via yet another pathway involving anthranilic acid as an intermediate. Strain CHA750, a mutant lacking TSO activity, was obtained after Tn5 mutagenesis of strain CHA0. In liquid cultures (pH 6.8) supplemented with 10 mM-L-tryptophan, growing cells of strains CHA0 and CHA750 synthesized the same amount of IAA, presumably using the tryptophan transaminase pathway. In contrast, resting cells of strain CHA750 produced five times less IAA in a buffer (pH 6.0) containing 1 mM-L-tryptophan than did resting cells of the wild-type, illustrating the major contribution of TSO to IAA synthesis under these conditions. In artificial soils at pH approximately 7 or pH approximately 6, both strains had similar abilities to suppress take-all disease of wheat or black root rot of tobacco. This suggests that TSO-dependent IAA synthesis is not essential for disease suppression. (+info)
A one-pot chemoenzymatic synthesis for the universal precursor of antidiabetes and antiviral bis-indolylquinones.
Bis-indolylquinones represent a class of fungal natural products that display antiretroviral, antidiabetes, or cytotoxic bioactivities. Recent advances in Aspergillus genomic mining efforts have led to the discovery of the tdiA-E-gene cluster, which is the first genetic locus dedicated to bis-indolylquinone biosynthesis. We have now genetically and biochemically characterized the enzymes TdiA (bis-indolylquinone synthetase) and TdiD (L-tryptophan:phenylpyruvate aminotransferase), which, together, confer biosynthetic abilities for didemethylasterriquinone D to Aspergillus nidulans. This compound is the universal intermediate for all bis-indolylquinones. In this biochemical study of a bis-indolylquinone synthetase and a fungal natural product transaminase, we present a one-pot chemoenzymatic protocol to generate didemethylasterriquinone D in vitro. As TdiA resembles a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, yet catalyzes carbon-carbon-bond formation, we discuss the implications for peptide synthetase chemistry. (+info)