Negligible amount of copper in hepatic L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.
During the purification of L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a protohemoprotein from rat liver, both copper and heme contents of the preparations were found to be progressively increased as purification proceeded. However, the greater part of copper was removed in the late stages of the purification giving a copper to heme ratio less than 0.4. The small amounts of copper could further be reduced by one-half, by a mild treatment of enzyme with chelators such as ethylenedi aminetetraacetate, without any accompanying decrease in enzymatic activity. Since the turnover number of these enzyme preparations expressed per mol of enzyme-bound heme, 200 to 277 min-1 at 25 degrees, were either comparable to or slightly higher than those reported with homogeneous enzyme preparations, the heme in the preparation was considered to be of fully active L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and, therefore, such a small ratio of copper to heme, 0.1 to 0.3, indicated that copper is not a constituent of L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase of rat liver. The findings were thus inconsistent with the results of Brady et al. (Brady, F. O., Monaco, M. E. Forman, H. J. Schutz, G., and Feigelson, P. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7915-7922), who found that L-tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase contained 2 g atoms of copper and 2 mol of heme/mol of enzyme. Possible reasons for this discrepancy have been discussed. (+info)
The role of free serum tryptophan in the biphasic effect of acute ethanol administration on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid.
1. Acute administration of ethanol exerts a biphasic effect on the concentrations of rat brain tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid. Both effects are associated with corresponding changes in the availability of circulating free tryptophan. 2. The initial increases in the above concentrations are prevented by ergotamine, are unaltered by allopurinol and are potentiated by theophylline, whereas the later decreases are prevented by both ergotamine and allopurinol. 3. It is suggested that the initial enhancement by ethanol of brain tryptophan metabolism is caused by catecholamine-mediated lipolysis followed by displacement of protein-bound serum tryptophan, whereas the activation of liver tryptophaan pyrrolase, which is produced by the same mechanism, leads to the later decreases in the brain concentrations of tryptophan and its metabolites. 4. The initial effects of ethanol can be reproduced by an equicaloric dose of sucrose, and a comparison of the two treatments alone could therefore be misleading. 5. The effects of ethanol on liver and brain tryptophan metabolism have also been examined in mice, and a comparison of the results with those previously reported suggests that the ethanol effects are strain-dependent. (+info)
Effect of maternal ethanol consumption on foetal and neonatal rat hepatic protein synthesis.
Effects of maternal ethanol consumption were investigated on the rates of protein synthehsis by livers of foetal and neonatal rats both in vivo and in vitro, and on the activities of enzymes involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The rates of general protein synthesis by ribosomes in vitro studied by measuring the incorporation of [14C]leucine into ribosomal protein showed that maternal ethanol consumption resulted in an inhibition of the rates of protein synthesis by both foetal and neonatal livers from the ethanol-fed group. The rates of incorporation of intravenously injected [14C]leucine into hepatic proteins were also significantly lower in the foetal, neonatal and adult livers from the ethanol-fed group. Incubation of adult-rat liver slices with ethanol resulted in an inhibition of the incorporation of [14C]leucine into hepatic proteins; however, this effect was not observed in the foetal liver slices. This effect of externally added ethanol was at least partially prevented by the addition of pyrazole to the adult liver slices. Pyrazole addition to foetal liver slices was without significant effect on the rates of protein synthesis. Cross-mixing experiments showed that the capacity of both hepatic ribosomes and pH5 enzyme fractions to synthesize proteins was decreased in the foetal liver from the ethanol-fed group. Maternal ethanol consumption resulted in a decrease in hepatic total RNA content, RNA/DNA ratio and ribosomal protein content in the foetal liver. Foetal hepatic DNA content was not significantly affected. Ethanol consumption resulted in a significant decrease in proteolytic activity and the activity of tryptophan oxygenase in the foetal, neonatal and adult livers. It is possible that the mechanisms of inhibition of protein synthesis observed here in the foetal liver after maternal ethanol consumption may be responsible for at least some of the changes observed in 'foetal alcohol syndrome'. (+info)
Inhibition of T cell proliferation by macrophage tryptophan catabolism.
We have recently shown that expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) during murine pregnancy is required to prevent rejection of the allogeneic fetus by maternal T cells. In addition to their role in pregnancy, IDO-expressing cells are widely distributed in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that monocytes that have differentiated under the influence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor acquire the ability to suppress T cell proliferation in vitro via rapid and selective degradation of tryptophan by IDO. IDO was induced in macrophages by a synergistic combination of the T cell-derived signals IFN-gamma and CD40-ligand. Inhibition of IDO with the 1-methyl analogue of tryptophan prevented macrophage-mediated suppression. Purified T cells activated under tryptophan-deficient conditions were able to synthesize protein, enter the cell cycle, and progress normally through the initial stages of G1, including upregulation of IL-2 receptor and synthesis of IL-2. However, in the absence of tryptophan, cell cycle progression halted at a mid-G1 arrest point. Restoration of tryptophan to arrested cells was not sufficient to allow further cell cycle progression nor was costimulation via CD28. T cells could exit the arrested state only if a second round of T cell receptor signaling was provided in the presence of tryptophan. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which antigen-presenting cells can regulate T cell activation via tryptophan catabolism. We speculate that expression of IDO by certain antigen presenting cells in vivo allows them to suppress unwanted T cell responses. (+info)
Replication of Toxoplasma gondii, but not Trypanosoma cruzi, is regulated in human fibroblasts activated with gamma interferon: requirement of a functional JAK/STAT pathway.
To study the role of tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (INDO) in the control of Trypanosoma cruzi or Toxoplasma gondii replication, we used human fibroblasts and a fibrosarcoma cell line (2C4). The cells were cultured in the presence or absence of recombinant gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) and/or recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) for 24 h and were then infected with either T. cruzi or T. gondii. Intracellular parasite replication was evaluated 24 or 48 h after infection. Treatment with rIFN-gamma and/or rTNF-alpha had no inhibitory effect on T. cruzi replication. In contrast, 54, 73, or 30% inhibition of T. gondii replication was observed in the cells treated with rIFN-gamma alone, rIFN-gamma plus rTNF-alpha, or TNF-alpha alone, respectively. The replication of T. gondii tachyzoites in cytokine-activated cells was restored by the addition of extra tryptophan to the culture medium. Similarly, T. gondii tachyzoites transfected with bacterial tryptophan synthase were not sensitive to the microbiostatic effect of rIFN-gamma. We also investigated the basis of the cytokine effect on parasite replication by using the three mutant cell lines B3, B9, and B10 derived from 2C4 and expressing defective STAT1alpha (signal transducer and activator of transcription), JAK2 (Janus family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), or JAK1, respectively, three important elements of a signaling pathway triggered by rIFN-gamma. We found that rTNF-alpha was able to induce low levels expression of INDO mRNA in the parental cell line, as well as the cell line lacking functional JAK2. In contrast to the parental cell line (2C4), rIFN-gamma was not able to induce the expression of INDO mRNA or microbiostatic activity in any of the mutant cell lines. These findings indicate the essential requirement of the JAK/STAT pathway for the induction of high levels of INDO mRNA, tryptophan degradation, and the anti-Toxoplasma activity inside human nonprofessional phagocytic cells. (+info)
The kynurenine metabolic pathway in the eye: studies on 3-hydroxykynurenine, a putative cataractogenic compound.
The rabbit lens has an elevated content of 3-hydroxykynurenine (30HKYN) in spite of a very low activity of the enzymes leading to its synthesis. The iris/ciliary body, on the contrary, has very high activity of 30HKYN synthesizing enzymes but a content of 30HKYN lower than that of the lens. These observations suggest that 30HKYN is formed in the iris/ ciliary body, released into the aqueous humor and then taken up into the lens where it may be used for the synthesis of UV filtering products. An excessive accumulation of 30HKYN in the lens has been associated with cataract formation. We found that available selective inhibitors of kynurenine hydroxylase reduced 30HKYN synthesis in both the lens and the iris/ciliary body. (+info)
Evidence for IRF-1-dependent gene expression deficiency in interferon unresponsive HepG2 cells.
Induction of the antiproliferative and antiviral state by IFNs (type I and II) is dramatically impaired in HepG2 cells. We show here that RNase L, IDO, GBP-2 and iNOS genes normally expressed as a secondary response to IFN are no longer inducible in HepG2 cells, while induction of primary response genes (IRF-1, PKR, p48-ISGF3gamma, 2-5AS, 6-16 and p56-(trp)tRNA) are unaffected. On the basis of previous data implicating transcription factor IRF-1 in the induction of some IFN-induced genes, we tested the effects of transfecting an IRF-1 oligonucleotide antisense in HeLa cells and found specifically impaired IFN induction of secondary response genes (RNase L, IDO and GBP-2). This raised the possibility that IRF-1 was defective in HepG2 cells. However, some molecular and biochemical analyses reveal that IRF-1 is induced normally by IFNs and retains its normal size, cellular location, phosphorylation status and ability to bind the IDO promoter in vitro. Therefore, we conclude that although the primary response pathway is fully functional, some aspects of the secondary pathway involving IRF-1 (but not IRF-1 itself) are defective in HepG2 cells. It may be possible that the promoter region of these deficient HepG2-genes requires an unidentified transcription factor in addition to de novo IRF-1, which could be elicited by a cooperative activator. (+info)
Population structure among African and derived populations of Drosophila simulans: evidence for ancient subdivision and recent admixture.
Previous studies based on allozyme variation have found little evidence for genetic differentiation in Drosophila simulans. On the basis of DNA sequence variation at two nuclear loci in four African populations of D. simulans, we show that there is significant structure to D. simulans populations within Africa. Variation at one of the loci, vermilion, appears to be neutral and supports an eastern African origin for European and American populations. Samples from the West Indies, Europe, and North America had a nucleotide diversity lower than that of African populations at vermilion and show nonequilibrium haplotype distributions at both vermilion and G6pd, consistent with a hypothesis of recent bottleneck and possibly also admixture in the history of these populations. Directional selection, previously documented at G6pd, appears to have occurred within the coalescence time of the species, obscuring deep population history. (+info)