Mouse trp2, the homologue of the human trpc2 pseudogene, encodes mTrp2, a store depletion-activated capacitative Ca2+ entry channel.
Capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) is Ca2+ entering after stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) formation and initiation of Ca2+ store depletion. One hallmark of CCE is that it can also be triggered merely by store depletion, as occurs after inhibition of internal Ca2+ pumps with thapsigargin. Evidence has accumulated in support of a role of transient receptor potential (Trp) proteins as structural subunits of a class of Ca2+-permeable cation channels activated by agonists that stimulate IP3 formation-very likely through a direct interaction between the IP3 receptor and a Trp subunit of the Ca2+ entry channel. The role of Trp's in Ca2+ entry triggered by store depletion alone is less clear. Only a few of the cloned Trp's appear to enhance this type of Ca2+ entry, and when they do, the effect requires special conditions to be observed, which native CCE does not. Here we report the full-length cDNA of mouse trp2, the homologue of the human trp2 pseudogene. Mouse Trp2 is shown to be readily activated not only after stimulation with an agonist but also by store depletion in the absence of an agonist. In contrast to other Trp proteins, Trp2-mediated Ca2+ entry activated by store depletion is seen under the same conditions that reveal endogenous store depletion-activated Ca2+ entry, i.e., classical CCE. The findings support the general hypothesis that Trp proteins are subunits of store- and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels. (+info)
Molecular and functional characterization of a novel mouse transient receptor potential protein homologue TRP7. Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel that is constitutively activated and enhanced by stimulation of G protein-coupled receptor.
Characterization of mammalian homologues of Drosophila transient receptor potential protein (TRP) is an important clue to understand molecular mechanisms underlying Ca(2+) influx activated in response to stimulation of G(q) protein-coupled receptors in vertebrate cells. Here we have isolated cDNA encoding a novel seventh mammalian TRP homologue, TRP7, from mouse brain. TRP7 showed abundant RNA expression in the heart, lung, and eye and moderate expression in the brain, spleen, and testis. TRP7 recombinantly expressed in human embryonic kidney cells exhibited distinctive functional features, compared with other TRP homologues. Basal influx activity accompanied by reduction in Ca(2+) release from internal stores was characteristic of TRP7-expressing cells but was by far less significant in cells expressing TRP3, which is structurally the closest to TRP7 in the TRP family. TRP7 induced Ca(2+) influx in response to ATP receptor stimulation at ATP concentrations lower than those necessary for activation of TRP3 and for Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store, which suggests that the TRP7 channel is activated independently of Ca(2+) release. In fact, TRP7 expression did not affect capacitative Ca(2+) entry induced by thapsigargin, whereas TRP7 greatly potentiated Mn(2+) influx induced by diacylglycerols without involvement of protein kinase C. Nystatin-perforated and conventional whole-cell patch clamp recordings from TRP7-expressing cells demonstrated the constitutively activated and ATP-enhanced inward cation currents, both of which were initially blocked and then subsequently facilitated by extracellular Ca(2+) at a physiological concentration. Impairment of TRP7 currents by internal perfusion of the Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid revealed an essential role of intracellular Ca(2+) in activation of TRP7, and their potent activation by the diacylglycerol analogue suggests that the TRP7 channel is a new member of diacylglycerol-activated cation channels. Relative permeabilities indicate that TRP7 is slightly selective to divalent cations. Thus, our findings reveal an interesting correspondence of TRP7 to the background and receptor stimulation-induced cation currents in various native systems. (+info)
Identification and characterization of MTR1, a novel gene with homology to melastatin (MLSN1) and the trp gene family located in the BWS-WT2 critical region on chromosome 11p15.5 and showing allele-specific expression.
Alterations within human chromosomal region 11p15.5 are associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and predisposition to a variety of neoplasias, including Wilms' tumors (WTs), rhabdoid tumors and rhabdomyosarcomas. To identify candidate genes for 11p15. 5-related diseases we compared human genomic sequence with expressed sequence tag and protein databases from different organisms to discover evolutionarily conserved sequences. Herein we describe the identification and characterization of a novel human transcript related to a putative Caenorhabditis elegans protein and the trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The highest homologies are observed with the human TRPC7 and with melastatin 1 ( MLSN1 ), whose transcript is downregulated in metastatic melanomas. Other genes related to and interacting with the trp family include the Grc gene, which codes for a growth factor-regulated channel protein, and PKD1/PKD2, involved in polycystic kidney disease. The novel gene presented here (named MTR1 for MLSN1 - and TRP -related gene 1) resides between TSSC4 and KvLQT1. MTR1 is expressed as a 4.5 kb transcript in a variety of fetal and adult tissues. The putative open reading frame is encoded in 24 exons, one of which is alternatively spliced leading to two possible proteins of 872 or 1165 amino acids with several predicted membrane-spanning domains in both versions. MTR1 transcripts are present in a large proportion of WTs and rhabdomyosarcomas. RT-PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids harboring a single human chromosome 11 demonstrated exclusive expression of MTR1 in cell lines carrying a paternal chromosome 11, indicating allele-specific inactivation of the maternal copy by genomic imprinting. (+info)
Sequence-based structural features between Kvlqt1 and Tapa1 on mouse chromosome 7F4/F5 corresponding to the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome region on human 11p15.5: long-stretches of unusually well conserved intronic sequences of kvlqt1 between mouse and human.
Mouse chromosome 7F4/F5 is a syntenic locus of human 11p15.5 in which many imprinted genes are clustered. Transmission of aberrant human 11p15.5 or duplicated 11p causes Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) depending on which parent the chromosome is derived from. To analyze a syntenic mouse locus corresponding to human 11p15.5, mouse BAC contigs were constructed between Nap2 and Tapa1, in which 390 kb was sequenced between Kvlqt1 and Tapa1. An unexpected finding was that of highly conserved intronic sequences of Kvlqt1 between mouse and human, and their homologies came up to at least 160 kb because the length of this gene extended to 350 kb, suggesting the possibility of some functional constraint due to transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional regulation of this region. Many expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were mapped on this locus. Three genes, Lit1 (Kvlqt1-AS), Mtr1 and Tssc4, were identified and characterized. Lit1 is an antisense-transcript of Kvlqt1 and paternally expressed and maternally methylated throughout the developmental stage. The position where Lit1 exists corresponded to a highly conserved region between mouse and human. This transcript extends at least 60 kb from downstream to upstream of exon 10 in Kvlqt1. Tssc4 and Mtr1 carried putative open reading frames but neither was imprinted. Further characterization of this locus based on the sequence comparison between mouse and human will contribute valuable information towards resolving the mechanism of the occurrence of BWS and the associated childhood tumor. (+info)
Cloning, expression and subcellular localization of two novel splice variants of mouse transient receptor potential channel 2.
Transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) are known as candidate molecular correlates of receptor-activated or store-operated calcium entry. While functional roles for most TRPCs have been suggested, the physiological relevance of TRPC2 remains obscure. Whereas human and bovine TRPC2 are candidate pseudogenes, full-length rodent TRPC2 transcripts have been reported. There is, however, considerable controversy concerning mRNA splicing, tissue distribution and the function of these proteins. We report the molecular cloning of two novel murine TRPC2 splice variants, mTRPC2alpha and mTRPC2beta. mTRPC2alpha RNA is expressed at low levels in many tissues and cell systems, while mTRPC2beta is exclusively and abundantly expressed in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). When expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, mTRPC2 did not enhance receptor- or store-activated calcium entry. In order to investigate the basis of such a functional defect, mTRPC2-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were examined by confocal microscopy. Fusion proteins were retained in endomembranes when expressed in HEK-293 or other cells of epithelial or neuronal origin. Co-expression of TRPC2 with other TRPCs did not restore plasma-membrane trafficking. We conclude that TRPC2 may form functional channels in the cellular context of the VNO, but is unlikely to have a physiological function in other tissues. (+info)
Cloning of the gene encoding a novel integral membrane protein, mucolipidin-and identification of the two major founder mutations causing mucolipidosis type IV.
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation and ophthalmologic abnormalities, including corneal opacity, retinal degeneration, and strabismus. Unlike the situation in other lysosomal disorders, the accumulation of heterogeneous storage material observed in MLIV does not result from a block in the catabolic pathways but is due to an ill-defined transport defect in the late steps of endocytosis. With the aim of cloning the MLIV gene, we searched in the 19p13.2-13.3 region, where the locus previously had been assigned by linkage mapping. In this region, we have identified a novel gene that is mutated in all patients with MLIV who were enrolled in our study. One patient was homozygous for the splice-acceptor mutation, and another was homozygous for a deletion removing the first six exons of the gene. In addition, four compound heterozygotes for these two mutations were identified. Haplotype analysis indicates that we have identified the two major founder mutations, which account for >95% of MLIV chromosomes in Ashkenazi Jewish patients. The gene, ML4, encodes a protein named "mucolipidin, " which localizes on the plasma membrane and, in the carboxy-terminal region, shows homologies to polycystin-2, the product of the polycystic kidney disease 2 gene (PKD2) and to the family of transient receptor potential Ca(2+) channels. Mucolipidin is likely to play an important role in endocytosis. (+info)
Mucolipidosis type IV is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a novel transient receptor potential channel.
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a developmental neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe neurologic and ophthalmologic abnormalities. The MLIV gene, ML4 (MCOLN1), has recently been localized to chromosome 19p13.2-13.3 by genetic linkage. Here we report the cloning of a novel transient receptor potential cation channel gene and show that this gene is mutated in patients with the disorder. ML4 encodes a protein, which we propose to call mucolipin, which has six predicted transmembrane domains and is a member of the polycystin II subfamily of the Drosophila transient receptor potential gene family. The role of a potential receptor-stimulated cation channel defect in the pathogenesis of mucolipidosis IV is discussed. (+info)
TRP-PLIK, a bifunctional protein with kinase and ion channel activities.
We cloned and characterized a protein kinase and ion channel, TRP-PLIK. As part of the long transient receptor potential channel subfamily implicated in control of cell division, it is a protein that is both an ion channel and a protein kinase. TRP-PLIK phosphorylated itself, displayed a wide tissue distribution, and, when expressed in CHO-K1 cells, constituted a nonselective, calcium-permeant, 105-picosiemen, steeply outwardly rectifying conductance. The zinc finger containing alpha-kinase domain was functional. Inactivation of the kinase activity by site-directed mutagenesis and the channel's dependence on intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) demonstrated that the channel's kinase activity is essential for channel function. (+info)