A novel class of protein from wheat which inhibits xylanases.
We have purified a novel class of protein that can inhibit the activity of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. The inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) is a glycosylated, monomeric, basic protein with a pI of 8.7-8.9, a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a unique N-terminal sequence of AGGKTGQVTVFWGRN. We have shown that the protein can inhibit the activity of two family-11 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanases, a recombinant enzyme from Aspergillus niger and an enzyme from Trichoderma viride. The inhibitory activity is heat and protease sensitive. The kinetics of the inhibition have been characterized with the A. niger enzyme using soluble wheat arabinoxylan as a substrate. The Km for soluble arabinoxylan in the absence of inhibitor is 20+/-2 mg/ml with a kcat of 103+/-6 s-1. The kinetics of the inhibition of this reaction are competitive, with a Ki value of 0.35 microM, showing that the inhibitor binds at or close to the active site of free xylanase. This report describes the first isolation of a xylanase inhibitor from any organism. (+info)
Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells.
Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed. (+info)
Evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass shown by reverse transcriptase domain analysis.
The evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass were examined by reverse transcriptase (RT) domain analysis. Twenty-three rice RT sequences were newly determined for this report. Phylogenetic analysis of 177 RT sequences, mostly derived from wheat, rice, and, maize, showed four distinct families, which were designated G1, G2, G3, and G4. Three of these families have elements obtained from distantly related species, indicative of origins prior to the radiation of grass species. Results of Southern hybridization and detailed comparisons between the wheat and rice sequences indicated that each of the families had undergone a distinct pattern of evolution. Multiple families appear to have evolved in parallel in a host species. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions suggested that there is a low percentage of elements carrying functional RT domains in the G4 family, indicating that the production of new G4 elements has been controlled by a small number of elements carrying functional RT domains. (+info)
The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora.
The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel. (+info)
Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein.
Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells. (+info)
Genetic selection of mutations in the high affinity K+ transporter HKT1 that define functions of a loop site for reduced Na+ permeability and increased Na+ tolerance.
Potassium is an important macronutrient required for plant growth, whereas sodium (Na+) can be toxic at high concentrations. The wheat K+ uptake transporter HKT1 has been shown to function in yeast and oocytes as a high affinity K+-Na+ cotransporter, and as a low affinity Na+ transporter at high external Na+. A previous study showed that point mutations in HKT1, which confer enhancement of Na+ tolerance to yeast, can be isolated by genetic selection. Here we report on the isolation of mutations in new domains of HKT1 showing further large increases in Na+ tolerance. By selection in a Na+ ATPase deletion mutant of yeast that shows a high Na+ sensitivity, new HKT1 mutants at positions Gln-270 and Asn-365 were isolated. Several independent mutations were isolated at the Asn-365 site. N365S dramatically increased Na+ tolerance in yeast compared with all other HKT1 mutants. Cation uptake experiments in yeast and biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes showed that the mechanisms underlying the Na+ tolerance conferred by the N365S mutant were: reduced inhibition of high affinity Rb+ (K+) uptake at high Na+ concentrations, reduced low affinity Na+ uptake, and reduced Na+ to K+ content ratios in yeast. In addition, the N365S mutant could be clearly distinguished from less Na+-tolerant HKT1 mutants by a markedly decreased relative permeability for Na+ at high Na+ concentrations. The new mutations contribute to the identification of new functional domains and an amino acid in a loop domain that is involved in cation specificity of a plant high affinity K+ transporter and will be valuable for molecular analyses of Na+ transport mechanisms and stress in plants. (+info)
Cloning and expression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phosphatidylserine synthase cDNA. Overexpression in plants alters the composition of phospholipids.
We describe the cloning of a wheat cDNA (TaPSS1) that encodes a phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) and provides the first strong evidence for the existence of this enzyme in a higher eukaryotic cell. The cDNA was isolated on its ability to confer increased resistance to aluminum toxicity when expressed in yeast. The sequence of the predicted protein encoded by TaPSS1 shows homology to PSS from both yeast and bacteria but is distinct from the animal PSS enzymes that catalyze base-exchange reactions. In wheat, Southern blot analysis identified the presence of a small family of genes that cross-hybridized to TaPSS1, and Northern blots showed that aluminum induced TaPSS1 expression in root apices. Expression of TaPSS1 complemented the yeast cho1 mutant that lacks PSS activity and altered the phospholipid composition of wild type yeast, with the most marked effect being increased abundance of phosphatidylserine (PS). Arabidopsis thaliana leaves overexpressing TaPSS1 showed a marked enhancement in PSS activity, which was associated with increased biosynthesis of PS at the expense of both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Unlike mammalian cells where PS accumulation is tightly regulated even when the capacity for PS biosynthesis is increased, plant cells accumulated large amounts of PS when TaPSS1 was overexpressed. High levels of TaPSS1 expression in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) led to the appearance of necrotic lesions on leaves, which may have resulted from the excessive accumulation of PS. The cloning of TaPSS1 now provides evidence that the yeast pathway for PS synthesis exists in some plant tissues and provides a tool for understanding the pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis and their regulation in plants. (+info)
Plant cell-directed control of virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus.
We have used particle bombardment (biolistics) to deliver replication-competent wheat dwarf virus (WDV)-based constructs, carrying reporter gene sequences fused to the virion sense promoter (Pv) or the CaMV 35S promoter, to suspension culture cells and immature zygotic embryos of wheat. While the replication of WDV double-stranded DNA forms (replicons) was equivalent between wheat suspension culture cells and embryos, GUS reporter gene activity was 20-40 times higher in the embryo cultures. Maximum expression of WDV replicons occurred in the embryonic axis tissue of wheat embryos but their expression in suspension cells was compromised, compared with transiently maintained input plasmid DNA containing the same sequences. From these studies, we propose that WDV replicons are subject to a host cell-controlled competency for virion sense transcription. The term competency is used to distinguish between the phenomenon described here and control of gene expression by specific transcription factors. Control of competency is independent of Pv, the replacement 35S promoter and of the complementary sense control of virion sense expression involving specific sequences in Pv. We propose that factors controlling the competency for replicon expression may be present in cells which, as well as maintaining high rates of DNA synthesis, are totipotent. Cell type control of active chromatin, methylation of specific sequences in WDV minichromosomes and/or interaction of virus-encoded proteins with specific host factors are considered as possible mechanisms. (+info)