Anesthetic efficacy of a combination of hyaluronidase and lidocaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a buffered lidocaine with epinephrine solution compared to a combination buffered lidocaine with epinephrine plus hyaluronidase solution in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Thirty subjects randomly received an inferior alveolar nerve block using 1 of the 2 solutions at 2 separate appointments using a repeated-measures design. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. A postoperative survey was used to measure pain and trismus. The results demonstrated 100% of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The anesthetic success rates for individual teeth ranged from 20 to 80%. There were no significant differences (P > .05) between the 2 solutions. However, the combination lidocaine/hyaluronidase solution resulted in a significant increase in postoperative pain and trismus. It was concluded that adding hyaluronidase to a buffered lidocaine solution with epinephrine did not statistically increase the incidence of pulpal anesthesia in inferior alveolar nerve blocks and, because of its potential tissue damaging effect, it should not be added to local anesthetic solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. (+info)
Reduction of jaw opening (trismus) in giant cell arteritis.
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and the clinical characterisation of jaw problems in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: the prevalence of such symptoms in patients with GCA was evaluated by performing a retrospective analysis of all patients with GCA and polymyalgia rheumatica who were diagnosed during admission to Hadassah University Hospital. Ten patients reported previously in the literature were also evaluated. RESULTS: Six patients out of 88 (6.8%) had complaints of reduction in jaw opening. These six patients seemed to have a much more abrupt onset of disease with shorter duration until diagnosis, higher prevalence of eye involvement (50% v 27%), and a higher rate of positive pathology (100%). CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in jaw opening in the appropriate setting may indicate the presence of GCA. This sign should not be overlooked in the presence of the claudication sign as it seems to reflect more severe GCA disease. (+info)
Prevention and treatment of the consequences of head and neck radiotherapy.
The location of the primary tumor or lymph node metastases dictates the inclusion of the oral cavity, salivary glands, and jaws in the radiation treatment portals for patients who have head and neck cancer. The clinical sequelae of the radiation treatment include mucositis, hyposalivation, loss of taste, osteoradionecrosis, radiation caries, and trismus. These sequelae may be dose-limiting and have a tremendous effect on the patient's quality of life. Most treatment protocols to prevent these sequelae are still based on clinical experience, but alternatives based on fundamental basic and clinical research are becoming more and more available. Many of these alternatives either need further study before they can be incorporated into the protocols commonly used to prevent and treat the radiation-related oral sequelae or await implementation of these protocols. In this review, the various possibilities for prevention and/or treatment of radiation-induced changes in healthy oral tissues and their consequences are discussed. (+info)
Osteoma of the condyle as the cause of limited-mouth opening: a case report.
Osteoma is a benign tumour consisting of mature bone tissue. It is an uncommon lesion that occurs mainly in the bones of the craniofacial complex. Only a few cases involving the condylar process have been reported. An osteoma of the left condyle causing limited mouth-opening in a 32-year-old Malaysian Chinese female is reported here to alert the practitioner to consider this lesion as a diagnostic possibility in instances of trismus or limited-mouth opening. (+info)
Mutation of perinatal myosin heavy chain associated with a Carney complex variant.
BACKGROUND: Familial cardiac myxomas occur in the hereditary syndrome Carney complex. Although PRKAR1A mutations can cause the Carney complex, the disorder is genetically heterogeneous. To identify the cause of a Carney complex variant associated with distal arthrogryposis (the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome), we performed clinical and genetic studies. METHODS: A large family with familial cardiac myxomas and the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome (Family 1) was identified and clinically evaluated along with two families with trismus and pseudocamptodactyly. Genetic linkage analyses were performed with the use of microsatellite polymorphisms to determine a locus for this Carney complex variant. Positional cloning and mutational analyses of candidate genes were performed to identify the genetic cause of disease in the family with the Carney complex as well as in the families with the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome. RESULTS: Clinical evaluations demonstrated that the Carney complex cosegregated with the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome in Family 1, and genetic analyses demonstrated linkage of the disease to chromosome 17p12-p13.1 (maximum multipoint lod score, 4.39). Sequence analysis revealed a missense mutation (Arg674Gln) in the perinatal myosin heavy-chain gene (MYH8). The same mutation was also found in the two families with the trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome. Arg674 is highly conserved evolutionarily, localizes to the actin-binding domain of the perinatal myosin head, and is close to the ATP-binding site. We identified nonsynonymous MYH8 polymorphisms in patients with cardiac myxoma syndromes but without arthrogryposis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a novel heart-hand syndrome involving familial cardiac myxomas and distal arthrogryposis and demonstrate that these disorders are caused by a founder mutation in the MYH8 gene. Our findings demonstrate novel roles for perinatal myosin in both the development of skeletal muscle and cardiac tumorigenesis. (+info)
Tiagabine may reduce bruxism and associated temporomandibular joint pain.
Tiagabine is an anticonvulsant gamma-aminobutyric acid reuptake inhibitor commonly used as an add-on treatment of refractory partial seizures in persons over 12 years old. Four of the 5 cases reported here indicate that tiagabine might also be remarkably effective in suppressing nocturnal bruxism, trismus, and consequent morning pain in the teeth, masticatory musculature, jaw, and temporomandibular joint areas. Tiagabine has a benign adverse-effect profile, is easily tolerated, and retains effectiveness over time. Bed partners of these patients report that grinding noises have stopped; therefore, the tiagabine effect is probably not simply antinociceptive. The doses used to suppress nocturnal bruxism at bedtime (4-8 mg) are lower than those used to treat seizures. (+info)
Effects of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium on pain, swelling and trismus following third molar surgery.
BACKGROUND: The apparent interactions between the mechanisms of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and steroids suggest that co-therapy may provide beneficial inflammatory and pain relief in the absence of side effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium (diclofenac K) with diclofenac K alone on the postoperative pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of third molars. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. A total of 100 patients were randomly allocated to two treatment groups of dexamethasone (prophylactic 8 mg and postoperative 4 mg IV) and diclofenac K (50 mg Oral before and after surgery), and diclofenac K alone (as with first group). The overall analgesic efficacy of the drug combinations was assessed postoperatively by determination of pain intensity using a category rating scale. Facial swelling was measured using a tape measure placed from tragus to gonion to tragus, while interincisal mouth-opening of patients was measured using a vernier calibrated caliper pre-operatively and post-operatively. RESULTS: Co-administration of dexamethasone and diclofenac K was significantly superior to diclofenac alone for the relief of pain (P < 0.05), and facial swelling up to post-operative 48 hour (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference for trismus relief between the two medication protocols (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study illustrates enhanced effects of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac K on short-term post-operative pain and swelling, compared to diclofenac potassium alone in third molar surgery. (+info)
Influence of smoking upon the postoperative course of lower third molar surgery.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether smoking influences the postoperative course (pain and trismus) of lower third molar surgery, with a clinical evaluation of surgical wound condition and analysis of the possible differences between smokers and nonsmokers. DESIGN: The study subjects were randomly distributed into two groups (smokers and nonsmokers) and subjected to lower third molar extraction in the Unit of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Madrid Complutense University, Spain). The study variables were trismus after 7 days, the intensity of pain and the need for rescue medication during a period of one week. The surgical wound was also assessed (color, presence of plaque, etc). RESULTS: Two cases of postoperative infection were documented among the smokers, and postoperative trismus was found to be greater among the latter (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of pain, though trismus was greater among the smokers. Smoking did not influence wound condition (color, marginal inflammation, appositioning of the margins, ulceration, etc). (+info)