Coronary sinus adrenomedullin rises in response to myocardial injury.
Human adrenomedullin (ADM), a peptide comprising 52 amino acids, is a circulating hormone with vasodilator properties. We have evaluated its release by the heart following ischaemic myocardial damage, as indicated by elevated levels of the cardiospecific protein troponin-T (Tn-T) during cardiopulmonary bypass. ADM (pg/ml) and Tn-T (ng/ml) were measured in coronary sinus blood before and after aortic cross-clamp and in venous blood 6 h after surgery in 22 coronary-bypass patients. Based on the pre- and post-clamp Tn-T levels in the coronary sinus, the patients were divided into group I (no change; n=10) and group II (two times increase; n=12). Baseline ADM (362.7+/-106.2 and 303+/-58.7 pg/ml in groups I and II respectively; means+/-S.D.) and Tn-T (0.66+/-0.14 and 0.57+/-0.13 ng/ml respectively) levels were similar in both groups. In group I, the post-clamp ADM (317.6+/-80.8 pg/ml) and Tn-T (0.68+/-0.15 ng/ml) levels did not change significantly. In group II, the post-clamp ADM levels rose significantly above the baseline, mimicking the change in Tn-T (ADM, 541.4+/-89.4 pg/ml; Tn-T, 1.37+/-0.31 ng/ml; P=0.009). After 6 h, the systemic Tn-T levels were similar in both groups (2. 09+/-0.44 and 1.95+/-0.52 ng/ml in groups I and II respectively). We suggest that: (1) minor degrees of myocardial ischaemic damage result in release of ADM by the heart, and (2) ADM may play a protective role in the myocardium during an ischaemic insult. This suggests a possible therapeutic role for ADM in the management of intra-operative myocardial ischaemia. (+info)
Biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in agitated cultures at pH 4.5.
The biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (175 microM) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium with molasses and citric acid at pH 4.5 was studied. In less than 2 weeks, TNT disappeared completely, but mineralization (liberated 14CO2) did not exceed 1%. A time study revealed the presence of several intermediates, marked by the initial formation of two monohydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes (2- and 4-HADNT) followed by their successive transformation to several other products, including monoaminodinitrotoluenes (ADNT). A group of nine acylated intermediates were also detected. They included 2-N-acetylamido-4,6-dinitrotoluene and its p isomer, 2-formylamido-4, 6-dinitrotoluene and its p isomer (as acylated ADNT), 4-N-acetylamino-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene and 4-N-formylamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene (as acetylated DANT), 4-N-acetylhydroxy-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-N-acetoxy-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (as acetylated HADNT), and finally 4-N-acetylamido-2-hydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene. Furthermore, a fraction of HADNTs were found to rearrange to their corresponding phenolamines (Bamberger rearrangement), while another group dimerized to azoxytoluenes which in turn transformed to azo compounds and eventually to the corresponding hydrazo derivatives. After 30 days, all of these metabolites, except traces of 4-ADNT and the hydrazo derivatives, disappeared, but mineralization did not exceed 10% even after the incubation period was increased to 120 days. The biotransformation of TNT was accompanied by the appearance of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin-dependent peroxidase (LiP) activities. MnP activity was observed almost immediately after TNT disappearance, which was the period marked by the appearance of the initial metabolites (HADNT and ADNT), whereas the LiP activity was observed after 8 days of incubation, corresponding to the appearance of the acyl derivatives. Both MnP and LiP activities reached their maximum levels (100 and 10 U/liter, respectively) within 10 to 15 days after inoculation. (+info)
Cloning and sequence analysis of two Pseudomonas flavoprotein xenobiotic reductases.
The genes encoding flavin mononucleotide-containing oxidoreductases, designated xenobiotic reductases, from Pseudomonas putida II-B and P. fluorescens I-C that removed nitrite from nitroglycerin (NG) by cleavage of the nitroester bond were cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The P. putida gene, xenA, encodes a 39,702-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that removes either the terminal or central nitro groups from NG and that reduces 2-cyclohexen-1-one but did not readily reduce 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The P. fluorescens gene, xenB, encodes a 37,441-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that exhibits fivefold regioselectivity for removal of the central nitro group from NG and that transforms TNT but did not readily react with 2-cyclohexen-1-one. Heterologous expression of xenA and xenB was demonstrated in Escherichia coli DH5alpha. The transcription initiation sites of both xenA and xenB were identified by primer extension analysis. BLAST analyses conducted with the P. putida xenA and the P. fluorescens xenB sequences demonstrated that these genes are similar to several other bacterial genes that encode broad-specificity flavoprotein reductases. The prokaryotic flavoprotein reductases described herein likely shared a common ancestor with old yellow enzyme of yeast, a broad-specificity enzyme which may serve a detoxification role in antioxidant defense systems. (+info)
Respiration of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11.
Under anoxic conditions Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 can use 2,4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as the sole N source, releasing nitrite from the aromatic ring and subsequently reducing it to ammonium and incorporating it into C skeletons. This study shows that TNT can also be used as a terminal electron acceptor in respiratory chains under anoxic conditions by Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11. TNT-dependent proton translocation coupled to the reduction of TNT to aminonitrotoluenes has been observed in TNT-grown cells. This extrusion did not occur in nitrate-grown cells or in anaerobic TNT-grown cells treated with cyanide, a respiratory chain inhibitor. We have shown that in a membrane fraction prepared from Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 grown on TNT under anaerobic conditions, the synthesis of ATP was coupled to the oxidation of molecular hydrogen and to the reduction of TNT. This phosphorylation was uncoupled by gramicidin. Respiration by Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 is potentially useful for the biotreatment of TNT in polluted waters and soils, particularly in phytorhizoremediation, in which bacterial cells are transported to the deepest root zones, which are poor in oxygen. (+info)
Cytotoxicity of TNT and its metabolites.
The production and storage of explosives has resulted in the environmental accumulation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The biotransformation products of the nitroaromatic compound TNT and metabolites in mammalian cells in culture and their cytotoxicity are studied. We report after our analysis by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that the most prevalent biotransformation product of TNT in the NG108 neuroblastoma cells is primarily monoamino-dinitrotoluene (2Am-DNT). It causes toxic effects based on trypan blue exclusion and LDH-release colorimetric assays. (+info)
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene reduction by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum.
Purified CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzed the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The intermediates and reduced products of TNT transformation were separated and appear to be identical to the compounds formed by C. acetobutylicum, namely, 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2HA46DNT), 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HA26DNT), 2, 4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (24DHANT), and the Bamberger rearrangement product of 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene. In the presence of saturating CO, CODH catalyzed the conversion of TNT to two monohydroxylamino derivatives (2HA46DNT and 4HA26DNT), with 4HA26DNT as the dominant isomer. These derivatives were then converted to 24DHANT, which slowly converted to the Bamberger rearrangement product. Apparent K(m) and k(cat) values of TNT reduction were 165 +/- 43 microM for TNT and 400 +/- 94 s(-1), respectively. Cyanide, an inhibitor for the CO/CO(2) oxidation/reduction activity of CODH, inhibited the TNT degradation activity of CODH. (+info)
Effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in a holistic environmental exposure regime on a terrestrial salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum.
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a defense-related environmental contaminant present at high concentrations in soil at some military installations. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum, family Ambystomatidae) were exposed to TNT in a soil matrix and fed earthworms that had also been exposed to TNT via contaminated soil. Such exposure was previously shown to result in significant accumulation of both TNT and TNT metabolites by salamanders. Following 14 days of combined oral and dermal exposures, salamanders were evaluated for signs of toxicity. Control and TNT-exposed salamanders gained weight (p < 0.025). In addition, organ to body weight ratios (kidney, liver, and spleen) were not affected by treatment. The function of splenic phagocytic cells was evaluated because these cells are sensitive to certain environmental chemical exposures. Neither the chemiluminescence response (H2O2 production) nor the phagocytic capacity of such cells were different between controls and treatment groups. In like manner, no changes were seen in the peripheral hematologic parameters investigated. Histopathologic evaluations were inconclusive, yet the liver revealed the presence of heavily pigmented iron-rich phagocytes (melanomacrophages). This investigation presents a realistic approach and preliminary data for investigating the effects of xenobiotic exposure in a soil matrix on a terrestrial vertebrate. (+info)
Zeta-crystallin catalyzes the reductive activation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene to generate reactive oxygen species: a proposed mechanism for the induction of cataracts.
Exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been shown to cause induction of cataract in which oxidative stress plays a critical role. From bovine lens we purified to homogeneity and identified an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TNT, resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species. The final preparation of TNT reductase showed a single band with a subunit molecular weight of 38 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Sequence data from peptides obtained by digestion with lysylendopeptidase Achromobacter protease I (API) revealed that TNT reductase is identical to zeta-crystallin. Superoxide anions were formed during reduction of TNT by zeta-crystallin, though negligible enzyme activity or protein content for superoxide dismutase, a superoxide scavenging enzyme, was found in the lens. Thus, the present results suggest that the induction of cataracts by TNT may be associated with increased oxidative stress, as a result of reductive activation of TNT generating superoxide anions, there being minimal antioxidant enzyme activity for defense against reactive oxygen species exogenously produced in the lens. (+info)