A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5
(2/905) Retarded growth and deficits in the enteric and parasympathetic nervous system in mice lacking GFR alpha2, a functional neurturin receptor.
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and a related protein, neurturin (NTN), require a GPI-linked coreceptor, either GFR alpha1 or GFR alpha2, for signaling via the transmembrane Ret tyrosine kinase. We show that mice lacking functional GFR alpha2 coreceptor (Gfra2-/-) are viable and fertile but have dry eyes and grow poorly after weaning, presumably due to malnutrition. While the sympathetic innervation appeared normal, the parasympathetic cholinergic innervation was almost absent in the lacrimal and salivary glands and severely reduced in the small bowel. Neurite outgrowth and trophic effects of NTN at low concentrations were lacking in Gfra2-/- trigeminal neurons in vitro, whereas responses to GDNF were similar between the genotypes. Thus, GFR alpha2 is a physiological NTN receptor, essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic neurons. (+info)
(3/905) Macrophage control of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication in the peripheral nervous system.
After corneal infection, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) invades sensory neurons with cell bodies in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), replicates briefly, and then establishes a latent infection in these neurons. HSV-1 replication in the TG can be detected as early as 2 days after corneal infection, reaches peak titers by 3-5 days after infection, and is undetectable by 7-10 days. During the period of HSV-1 replication, macrophages and gammadelta TCR+ T lymphocytes infiltrate the TG, and TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, and IL-12 are expressed. TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and the iNOS product nitric oxide (NO) all inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro. Macrophage and gammadelta TCR+ T cell depletion studies demonstrated that macrophages are the main source of TNF-alpha and iNOS, whereas gammadelta TCR+ T cells produce IFN-gamma. Macrophage depletion, aminoguanidine inhibition of iNOS, and neutralization of TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma all individually and synergistically increased HSV-1 titers in the TG after HSV-1 corneal infection. Moreover, individually depleting macrophages or neutralizing TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma markedly reduced the accumulation of both macrophages and gammadelta TCR+ T cells in the TG. Our findings establish that after primary HSV-1 infection, the bulk of virus replication in the sensory ganglia is controlled by macrophages and gammadelta TCR+ T lymphocytes through their production of antiviral molecules TNF-alpha, NO, and IFN-gamma. Our findings also strongly suggest that cross-regulation between these two cell types is necessary for their accumulation and function in the infected TG. (+info)
(4/905) Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation.
1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats. (+info)
(5/905) Voltage-dependent sodium and calcium currents in acutely isolated adult rat trigeminal root ganglion neurons.
Voltage-dependent sodium (INa) and calcium (ICa) currents in small (<30 microM) neurons from adult rat trigeminal root ganglia were characterized with a standard whole cell patch-clamp technique. Two types of INa showing different sensitivity to tetrodotoxin (TTX) were recorded, which showed marked differences in their activating and inactivating time courses. The activation and the steady-state inactivation kinetics of TTX-resistant INa were more depolarized by about +20 and +30 mV, respectively, than those of TTX-sensitive INa. Voltage-dependent ICa was recorded under the condition that suppressed sodium and potassium currents with 10 mM Ca2+ as a charge carrier. Depolarizing step pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV evoked two distinct inward ICa, low-voltage activated (LVA) and high-voltage activated (HVA) ICa. LVA ICa was first observed at -60 to -50 mV and reached a peak at about -30 mV. Amiloride (0.5 mM) suppressed approximately 60% of the LVA ICa, whereas approximately 10% of HVA ICa was inhibited by the same concentration of the amiloride. LVA ICa was far less affected by the presence of external Cd2+ or the replacement of Ca2+ by 10 Ba2+ than HVA ICa. The omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx), an N-type ICa blocker, suppressed approximately 65% of the whole cell HVA ICa at the concentration of 1 microM. The omega-CgTx-resistant HVA ICa was sensitive to nifedipine (10 microM), a dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel antagonist, which produced an additional blockade by approximately 25% of the drug-free control ( approximately 70% of the omega-CgTx-resistant ICa). The combination of 10 microM nifedipine and 1 microM omega-CgTx left approximately 13% of the drug-free control ICa unblocked. The DHP agonist S(-)-BayK8644 (5 microM) shifted the activation of the HVA ICa to more negative potentials and increased its maximal amplitude. Additionally, S(-)-BayK8644 caused the appearance of a slowed component of the tail current. These results clearly demonstrate that the presence of two types of sodium channels, TTX sensitive and resistant, and three types of calcium channels, T, L, and N type, in the small-sized adult rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. (+info)
(6/905) Encephalitis induced by bovine herpesvirus 5 and protection by prior vaccination or infection with bovine herpesvirus 1.
Calves were intranasally challenged with bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV5) and followed for the development of viral infection, clinical encephalitis, histologic lesions in the brain, and viral sequences in the trigeminal ganglia. Calves that were previously vaccinated with bovine herepesvirus 1 (BHV1, n = 4) or previously infected with BHV1 (n = 5) or that had not been exposed to either virus (n = 4) were compared. No calf developed signs of encephalitis, although all calves developed an infection as indicated by nasal secretion of BHV5 and seroconversion to the virus. Histologic lesions of encephalitis consisting of multifocal gliosis and perivascular cuffs of lymphocytes were observed in calves not previously exposed to BHV1. BHV5 sequences were amplified from the trigeminal ganglia of calves previously vaccinated and from calves not previously exposed to BHV1; calves sequentially challenged with BHV1 and later BHV5 had exclusively BHV1 sequences in their trigeminal ganglia. Administration of dexamethasone 28 days after BHV5 challenge did not influence clinical disease or histologic lesions in either previously unexposed calves (n = 2) or previously immunized calves (n = 2), although it did cause recrudescence of BHV5, as detected by nasal virus secretion. (+info)
(7/905) Expression of Trk receptors in the developing mouse trigeminal ganglion: in vivo evidence for NT-3 activation of TrkA and TrkB in addition to TrkC.
Animals lacking neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are born with deficits in almost all sensory ganglia. Among these, the trigeminal ganglion is missing 70% of the normal number of neurons, a deficit which develops during the major period of neurogenesis between embryonic stages (E) 10.5 and E13.5. In order to identify the mechanisms for this deficit, we used antisera specific for TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC to characterize and compare the expression patterns of each Trk receptor in trigeminal ganglia of wild type and NT-3 mutants between E10.5 and E15.5. Strikingly, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC proteins appear to be exclusively associated with neurons, not precursors. While some neurons show limited co-expression of Trk receptors at E11.5, by E13. 5 each neuron expresses only one Trk receptor. Neuronal birth dating and cell counts show that in wild-type animals all TrkB- and TrkC-expressing neurons are generated before E11.5, while the majority of TrkA-expressing neurons are generated between E11.5 and E13.5. In mice lacking NT-3, the initial formation of the ganglion, as assessed at E10.5, is similar to that in wild-type animals. At E11.5, however, the number of TrkC-expressing neurons is dramatically reduced and the number of TrkC-immunopositive apoptotic profiles is markedly elevated. By E13.5, TrkC-expressing neurons are virtually eliminated. At E11.5, compared to wild type, the number of TrkB-expressing neurons is also reduced and the number of TrkB immunoreactive apoptotic profiles is increased. TrkA neurons are also reduced in the NT-3 mutants, but the major deficit develops between E12.5 and E13.5 when elevated numbers of TrkA-immunoreactive apoptotic profiles are detected. Normal numbers of TrkA- and TrkB-expressing neurons are seen in a TrkC-deficient mutant. Therefore, our data provide evidence that NT-3 supports the survival of TrkA-, TrkB- and TrkC-expressing neurons in the trigeminal ganglion by activating directly each of these receptors in vivo. (+info)
(8/905) Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion by a serotonergic antimigraine drug.
We have investigated the regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurons by the serotonergic antimigraine drug sumatriptan. Serum levels of the neuropeptide CGRP are elevated during migraine. Treatment with the drug sumatriptan returns CGRP levels to normal coincident with the alleviation of headache. However, despite this clinical efficacy, the cellular target and mechanism of sumatriptan action are not well understood beyond the pharmacology of its recognition of the 5-HT1 class of serotonin receptors. We have used cultured trigeminal neurons to demonstrate that sumatriptan can directly repress CGRP secretion from sensory neurons. The stimulated secretion in response to depolarization or inflammatory agents was inhibited, but not the basal secretion rate. Unexpectedly, sumatriptan did not lower cAMP levels, in contrast to the classical role ascribed to the 5-HT1 receptors. Instead, activation of 5-HT1 receptors caused a slow and remarkably prolonged increase in intracellular calcium. The inhibition of CGRP secretion is attenuated by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, suggesting that sumatriptan action is mediated by calcium-recruited phosphatases. These results suggest that 5-HT1 agonists may block a deleterious feedback loop in migraine at the trigeminal neurons and provide a general mechanism by which this class of drugs can attenuate stimulated neuropeptide release. (+info)