Prevalence of lower genital tract infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and high-risk HIV-seronegative women. HIV Epidemiology Research Study Group.
This study was undertaken to assess whether the prevalence of lower genital tract infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women was higher than among high-risk HIV-seronegative women at their baseline visit for the HIV Epidemiology Research Study. Results were available for 851 HIV-seropositive and 434 HIV-seronegative women. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection was more prevalent among HIV-seropositive women (64% vs. 28%). Bacterial vaginosis was common (35% vs. 33%), followed by trichomoniasis (12% vs. 10%), syphilis (8% vs. 6%), Chlamydia trachomatis infection (4% vs. 5%), candidal vaginitis (3% vs. 2%), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection (0.8% vs. 0.3%). Alcohol use (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1. 3-2.4) and smoking (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5) were associated with bacterial vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.4), trichomoniasis (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and syphilis (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.4) were found to be more prevalent among black women. Our study showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of lower genital tract infections except for HPV between HIV-infected and demographically and behaviorally similar HIV-uninfected high-risk women. (+info)
Reporting and concordance of methodologic criteria between abstracts and articles in diagnostic test studies.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality and concordance of methodologic criteria in abstracts versus articles regarding the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. STUDY DESIGN: Survey of published literature. DATA SOURCES: Studies indexed in MEDLINE (1976-1998). STUDY SELECTION: Studies that used culture as the gold or reference standard. DATA EXTRACTION: Data from abstract and articles were independently abstracted using 4 methodologic criteria: (1) prospective evaluation of consecutive patients; (2) test results did not influence the decision to do gold standard; (3) independent and blind comparison with gold standard; and (4) broad spectrum of patients used. The total number of criteria met for each report was calculated to create a quality score (0-4). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: None of the 33 abstracts or full articles reported all 4 criteria. Three criteria were reported in none of the abstracts and in 18% of articles (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 8.6% to 34%). Two criteria were reported in 18% of abstracts (95% CI, 8.6% to 34%) and 42% of articles (95% CI, 27% to 59%). One criterion was reported in 42% of abstracts (95% CI, 27% to 59%) and 27% of articles (95% CI, 15% to 44%). No criteria were reported in 13 (39%) of 33 abstracts (95% CI, 25% to 56%) and 4 (12%) of 33 articles (95% CI, 4.8% to 27%). The agreement of the criteria between the abstract and the article was poor (kappa -0.09; 95% CI, -0.18 to 0) to moderate (kappa 0.53; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: Information on methods basic to study validity is often absent from both abstract and paper. The concordance of such criteria between the abstract and article needs to improve. (+info)
Strategies by which some pathogenic trichomonads integrate diverse signals in the decision-making process.
The interaction between each one of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus with their hosts is a complex process in which components associated to the cell surfaces of both parasites and host epithelial cells, and also to soluble components found in vaginal/urethral secretions, are involved. Either cytoadhesion or the cytotoxicity exerted by parasites to host cells can be dictated by virulence factors such as adhesins, cysteine proteinases, laminin-binding proteins, integrins, integrin-like molecules, a cell detachment factor, a pore-forming protein, and glycosidases among others. How trichomonads manipulate informations from the extracellular medium, transduce such informations, and respond to them by stimulating the activities of some surface molecules and/or releasing enzymes are the aspects concerning trichomonal virulence which are here briefly reviewed and discussed. (+info)
Trichomonas vaginalis epidemiology: parameterising and analysing a model of treatment interventions.
BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis, which affects at least 170 million individuals globally, may increase the risk of transmission of HIV and predispose pregnant women to premature rupture of membranes and early labour. OBJECTIVE: To more clearly define the epidemiology of trichomoniasis and to develop a mathematical model of disease transmission dynamics in order to explore various treatment strategies. DESIGN: A deterministic model of trichomoniasis was constructed. Parameter values were set to fit the model to known endemic prevalence levels of Trichomonas vaginalis. Two treatment interventions ("screening" and "syndromic management") were simulated. RESULTS: The age specific prevalence of the disease was seen to differ from other STDs in a number of studies. Parameter fitting indicates that the average duration of infection in women is at least 3-5 years and approximately 4 months for men. "Syndromic management" (that is, treating only those with symptoms of disease) had minimal effect upon the endemic prevalence of disease even at high levels of coverage. "Screening" (that is, identification of individuals with both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection) was shown to be the most efficient method of control, but was sensitive to the screening interval. CONCLUSIONS: The control of trichomoniasis seems to have been a success in developed countries because of the regular access to health care, whereas it has remained endemic in many developing countries where control may only be possible by regular screening and treatment. However, without a large investment in services, success in controlling trichomoniasis is likely to be transitory. (+info)
Risk and prevalence of treatable sexually transmitted diseases at a Birmingham substance abuse treatment facility.
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and syphilis in patients entering residential drug treatment. METHODS: Data on sexual and substance abuse histories were collected. Participants provided specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing. Trichomonas vaginalis culture, and syphilis serologic testing. RESULTS: Of 311 patients, crack cocaine use was reported by 67% and multisubstance use was reported by 71%. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors were common. The prevalence of infection was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis, 2.3%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1.6%; trichomoniasis, 43%; and syphilis, 6%. CONCLUSIONS: STD counseling and screening may be a useful adjunct to inpatient drug treatment. (+info)
High prevalence of trichomoniasis in rural men in Mwanza, Tanzania: results from a population based study.
OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of urethral infections including trichomoniasis in rural Tanzanian men, to assess the prevalence of symptoms and signs among men with Trichomonas vaginalis, and to analyse the risk factors for trichomoniasis. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of 1004 men aged 15-54 years in a rural community in north west Tanzania. METHODS: Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviour and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases. First fraction urine samples and urethral swabs were collected and used to test for T vaginalis by wet preparation and culture, Neisseria gonorrhoeae by culture, Chlamydia trachomatis by ligase chain reaction and non-specific urethritis by Gram stain. Urine was also tested for the presence of leucocytes using a leucocyte esterase dipstick. Men were re-interviewed 2 weeks later to document new symptoms and signs of urethritis. RESULTS: Complete laboratory results were available on 980 men. One in four men had laboratory evidence of urethritis. T vaginalis was found in 109 individuals (11%), gonorrhoea in eight (0.8%), and chlamydial infection in 15 (1.5%). Over 50% of men with urethritis were asymptomatic. The prevalence of signs and symptoms was similar among men with T vaginalis alone compared with men with other urethral infections. The sensitivity and specificity of the leucocyte esterase dipstick (LED) test for detecting T vaginalis were 80% and 48% respectively in symptomatic men and 60% and 68% in asymptomatic men. Factors associated with trichomoniasis included religion, type of employment, and marital status. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of urethritis was found in men in this community based study. More than half of the urethral infections detected were asymptomatic. The most prevalent pathogen was T vaginalis. Studies are needed on the prevalence of trichomoniasis in men presenting to health services with complaints suggestive of urethritis since treatment for T vaginalis is not included in the syndromic management of urethritis in most countries. The performance of the LED test as a screening test for trichomoniasis was unsatisfactory in both symptomatic and asymptomatic men. Improved screening tests are urgently needed to identify urethral infections that are asymptomatic and which are not covered by current syndromic management algorithms. (+info)
Molecular typing of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by HSP70 restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Subtyping isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis is an essential tool for understanding the epidemiology of this common sexually-transmitted disease. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis employing a probe from the heat-inducible cytoplasmic HSP70 gene family hybridized with EcoR I-digested genomic DNA was used in the molecular typing of Trichomonas isolates. Analysis of five American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains and 31 Jackson, Mississippi, isolates from six male and 21 female patients, revealed 10 distinct RFLP pattern subtypes of Trichomonas. The subtypes were temporally stable and cosmopolitan. The RFLP profiles seen in Maryland, Ohio, Massachusetts, and New York ATCC strains were identical to those of some Mississippi isolates, even though the samples were isolated 10-35 years apart. There was no correlation between metronidazole resistance and RFLP subtype with resistant isolates from eight patients distributed among six different subtypes. (+info)
Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Peru reveals an absence of Chlamydia trachomatis and identifies Trichomonas vaginalis in pharyngeal specimens.
To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), we screened 107 human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Peru, where the virus is predominantly sexually transmitted. Patients had multiple risk factors for STDs, and 38% of women and 50% of men had at least 1 STD (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, herpes simplex, anogenital warts, or syphilis seropositivity). No chlamydial infection was detected, even though infection rates in the general population are 5%-12%. Patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMZ) for prophylaxis or treatment of respiratory infections were least likely to have cervicitis and/or urethritis (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.89). Although not optimal treatment, administration of TMP-SMZ is effective against chlamydial infection. We speculate that the use of concomitant medications, such as TMP-SMZ, may be inadvertently preventing chlamydial infection in this population. Another finding was the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis in pharyngeal specimens of 3 men with histories of orogenital activity. This has not been previously reported and requires further study. (+info)