Purification and properties of a nuclease from the fruit body of Tricholoma matsutake.
A nuclease was purified from the fruit body of Tricholoma matsutake. The molecular mass was 38 kDa. The optimum pH of the nuclease was about 8.0. Its activity was inhibited by GTP. The nuclease cleaved RNA and heat-denatured DNA endonucleolytically to produce 5'-mononucleotide, and showed 3'-nucleotidase activity. The amino acid sequence up to seven amino acids from the N-terminus was NH(2)-APPPSSN. (+info)
Purification and characterization of a laccase from the edible wild mushroom Tricholoma mongolicum.
A novel laccase from Tricholoma mongolicum was purified by using a procedure which entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The purified enzyme was obtained with a specific activity of 1480 U/mg-protein and a final yield of 15%. It was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 66 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was GIGPVADLYVGNRIL, similar to some but different other mushroom laccase. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified enzyme were pH 2 to pH 3 and 30 degrees C, respectively. It displayed a low K(m) toward 2,7-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazolone-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and high K(cat)/K(m) values. The purified laccase oxidized a wide range of lignin-related phenols, but exerted maximal activity on ABTS. It was significantly inhibited by Hg(2+) ions, and remarkably stimulated by Cu(2+) ions. It inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC50 of 0.65 microM, 1.4 microM, and 4.2 microM, respectively, indicating that it is also an antipathogenic protein. (+info)
Total mercury in Yellow Knights (Tricholoma equestre) mushrooms and beneath soils.
Cloning and mRNA expression analysis of the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake.
The ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake grows symbiotically with Pinus densiflora. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (E.C. 22.214.171.124) catalyzes the conversion of L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid. The role of fungal phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, however, has not been clear until now. In this study, the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), which was isolated from T. matsutake, was cloned and characterized. The PAL gene (tmpal) consists of 2,160 nucleotides, coding for a polypeptide containing 719 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of tmpal from T. matsutake shows high identity (70%) with that from Laccaria bicolor. Comparative analysis of the PAL genes among T. matsutake and other species of the class Agaricomycetes showed that both active sites and binding sites were significantly conserved among these genes. The transcriptional analysis of the PAL gene revealed a differential gene expression pattern depending on the developmental stages (mycelium, primordium, stipe, pileus, and gills) of T. matsutake. These results suggest that the PAL gene in T. matsutake plays an important role in multiple physiological functions. (+info)
Metagenomic analysis of fungal communities inhabiting the fairy ring zone of Tricholoma matsutake.
Tricholoma matsutake, an ectomycorrhiza that has mutual relationships with the rootlet of Pinus denisflora, forms a fruiting body that serves as a valuable food in Asia. However, the artificial culture of this fungus has not been successful. Soil fungi, including T. matsutake, coexist with many other microorganisms and plants; therefore, complex microbial communities have an influence on the fruiting body formation of T. matsutake. Here, we report on the structures of fungal communities associated with the fairy ring of T. matsutake through the pyrosequencing method. Soil samples were collected inside the fairy ring zone, in the fairy ring zone, and outside the fairy ring zone. A total of 37,125 sequencing reads were obtained and 728 to 1,962 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in the sampling zones. The fairy ring zone had the lowest OTUs and the lowest fungal diversity of all sampling zones. The number of OTUs and fungal taxa inside and outside the fairy ring zone was, respectively, about 2 times and 1.5 times higher than the fairy ring. Taxonomic analysis showed that each sampling zone has different fungal communities. In particular, out of 209 genera total, 6 genera in the fairy ring zone, such as Hemimycena, were uniquely present and 31 genera, such as Mycena, Boletopsis, and Repetophragma, were specifically absent. The results of metagenomic analysis based on the pyrosequencing indicate a decrease of fungal communities in the fairy ring zone and changes of fungal communities depending on the fairy ring growth of T. matsutake. (+info)
Polysaccharides from Tricholoma matsutake and Lentinus edodes enhance 5-fluorouracil-mediated H22 cell growth inhibition.
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated the effects produced by combinations of polysaccharides and chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer treatment. We hypothesized that a combination of polysaccharides (COP) from Lentinus edodes and Tricholoma matsutake would improve the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-mediated inhibition of H22 cell growth. METHODS: Mice were injected H22 cells and then treated with either 5-FU, polysaccharides from Tricholoma matsutake (PTM), polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (PL), PTM+PL, 5-FU+PTM, 5-FU+ PL, or 5-FU + COP. The tumor weight and volume, and splenic CD4 + and CD8 + T cell frequencies, were determined. Additionally, splenic natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities were assessed and the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin-2 (IL-2), and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were measured. RESULTS: Compared with mice from the control, 5-FU, PL, PTM, PTM + PL, 5-FU + PL, and 5-FU + PTM groups, mice treated with 5-FU + COP showed: (a) significantly reduced tumor weight and volume (P < 0.05); (b) significantly higher serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-2, and IFN-gamma (P < 0.05); (c) significantly increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell frequencies in the spleen (P < 0.05); and (d) significantly increased splenic NK cell and CTL activities (P < 0.05). The tumor weight and volume in mice treated with 5-FU+PL or 5-FU+PTM were significantly reduced compared with mice treated with 5-FU alone (P < 0.05). Serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-2, and IFN-gamma, frequencies of CD4 + and CD8+ T cells in the spleen, and splenic NK and CTL activities were also significantly increased in mice treated with 5-FU+PL or 5-FU+PTM compared with mice treated with 5-FU alone (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and Tricholoma matsutake could enhance the efficacy of 5-FU-mediated H22 cell growth inhibition. (+info)