Triangular fibrocartilage complex tears: a review.
Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears are a common source of ulnar sided wrist pain. Originally described by Palmer, in 1981, as a complex of several structures, our understanding of the anatomy and the function of the TFCC has been refined by histologic studies. The TFCC plays an important role in load bearing across the wrist as well as in distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stabilization. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy as well as the Palmer classification system helps to guide treatment options. (+info)
Accuracy of direct magnetic resonance arthrography in the diagnosis of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears of the wrist.
The aim of this study was to assess the value of direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography of the wrist for detecting full-thickness tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Twenty-four consecutive patients who had ulnar-sided wrist pain and clinical suspicion of TFCC tear were included in the study. All patients underwent direct MR arthrography and then wrist arthroscopy, and the results of MR arthrography were compared with the arthroscopic findings. The positive predictive value of MR arthrography in detecting TFCC full-thickness tear was 0.95, and the negative predictive value was 0.50. The sensitivity of MR arthrography in detecting a TFCC full-thickness tear was 74% (15/19), and specificity was 80% (4/5). The overall accuracy of MR arthrography in detecting a full-thickness tear of the TFCC in our study was 79% (19/24). We believe that diagnosis of tears in the TFCC by direct MR arthrography is not entirely satisfactory, although MR arthrography has a high positive predictive value for detecting TFCC tears. Negative results of MR arthrography in patients with clinical suspicion of TFCC tear should be interpreted with caution. (+info)
An immunohistochemical study of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist: regional variations in cartilage phenotype.
The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) transmits load from the wrist to the ulna and stabilizes the distal radioulnar joint. Damage to it is a major cause of wrist pain. Although its basic structure is well established, little is known of its molecular composition. We have analysed the immunohistochemical labelling pattern of the extracellular matrix of the articular disc and the meniscal homologue of the TFCC in nine elderly individuals (age range 69-96 years), using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Although many of the molecules (types I, III and VI collagen, chondroitin 4 sulphate, dermatan sulphate and keratan sulphate, the oversulphated epitope of chondroitin 6 sulphate, versican and COMP) were found in all parts of the TFCC, aggrecan, link protein and type II collagen were restricted to the articular disc and to entheses. They were thus not a feature of the meniscal homologue. The shift in tissue phenotype within the TFCC, from a fibrocartilaginous articular disc to a more fibrous meniscal homologue, correlates with biomechanical data suggesting that the radial region is stiff and subject to considerable stress concentration. The presence of aggrecan, link protein and type II collagen in the articular disc could explain why the TFCC is destroyed in rheumatoid arthritis, given that it has been suggested that autoimmunity to these antigens results in the destruction of articular cartilage. The differential distribution of aggrecan within the TFCC is likely to be reflected by regional differences in water content and mobility on the radial and ulnar side. This needs to be taken into account in the design of improved MRI protocols for visualizing this ulnocarpal complex of the wrist. (+info)
Sonography and sonoarthrography of the scapholunate and lunotriquetral ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage disk: initial experience and correlation with arthrography and magnetic resonance arthrography.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of sonography and sonoarthrography in evaluation of dorsal bands of the scapholunate ligament (SLL), lunotriquetral ligament (LTL), and triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) disk in correlation with arthrography and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA). METHODS: High-resolution sonography of the SLL, LTL, and TFC disk was performed on symptomatic wrists in 16 patients referred by a hand surgeon for MRA of the symptomatic wrists. All patients then underwent arthrography and an MRA study of the same wrist. After MRA, sonography was repeated. The imaging findings of these different techniques were then compared. Four patients (25%) underwent surgery of their wrists. In these 4 patients, the surgical and imaging findings were correlated. RESULTS: For the SLL, the results were concordant for all imaging modalities in 15 patients (93.75%) and partially concordant in 1 (6.25%). For the LTL, the results were concordant for all imaging modalities in 12 patients (75%), partially concordant in 3 (18.75%), and discordant in 1 (6.25%). For the TFC disk, the results were concordant for all imaging modalities in 13 patients (81.25%), partially concordant in 2 (12.5%), and discordant in 1 (6.25%). The arthroscopic and imaging findings were concordant for 3 SLLs, 3 LTLs, and 3 TFC disks. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results are encouraging. Sonography may be used at least as a screening imaging modality in evaluation of the SLL and TFC disk. Sonoarthrography improves evaluation of the LTL. (+info)
In vivo 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and hand: technical aspects and applications.
The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) acts in concert with the proximal radioulnar joint to control forearm rotation. The DRUJ is stabilized by the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). This complex of fibrocartilage and ligaments support the joint through its arc of rotation, as well as provide a smooth surface for the ulnar side of the carpus. TFCC and DRUJ injuries are part of the common pattern of injuries we see with distal radius fractures. While much attention has been paid to the treatment of the distal radius fractures, many of the poor outcomes are due to untreated or unrecognized injuries to the DRUJ and its components. (+info)
Arthroscopic repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex using a hypodermic needle: a technical note.
Tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) often lead to chronic wrist pain. The commonly used 2-needle outside-in and inside-out suturing techniques require an extra incision to tie the sutures subcutaneously. We use a practical and cost-effective arthroscopic technique for treatment of peripheral Palmer type 1B TFCC tears using a hypodermic needle. This obviates the need for an additional skin incision, thus lowering the risk of neurovascular damage, reducing postoperative pain, and enabling faster rehabilitation and better cosmesis. (+info)