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(1/4460) Cluster survey evaluation of coverage and risk factors for failure to be immunized during the 1995 National Immunization Days in Egypt.

BACKGROUND: In 1995, Egypt continued to experience endemic wild poliovirus transmission despite achieving high routine immunization coverage with at least three doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) and implementing National Immunization Days (NIDs) annually for several years. METHODS: Parents of 4188 children in 3216 households throughout Egypt were surveyed after the second round of the 1995 NIDs. RESULTS: Nationwide, 74% of children are estimated to have received both NID doses, 17% one NID dose, and 9% neither NID dose. Previously unimmunized (47%) or partially immunized (64%) children were less likely to receive two NID doses of OPV than were fully immunized children (76%) (P < 0.001). Other risk factors nationwide for failure to receive NID OPV included distance from residence to nearest NID site >10 minute walk (P < 0.001), not being informed about the NID at least one day in advance (P < 0.001), and residing in a household which does not watch television (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, subsequent NIDs in Egypt were modified to improve coverage, which has resulted in a marked decrease in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: In selected situations, surveys can provide important information that is useful for planning future NIDs.  (+info)

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nvited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate?  (+info)

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aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa?  (+info)

(4/4460) Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

(5/4460) Association of plasma fibrinogen concentration with vascular access failure in hemodialysis patients.

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma fibrinogen is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure. High plasma fibrinogen may trigger thrombus formation in arteriovenous fistulas. We performed a prospective, cohort study to evaluate the association of plasma fibrinogen concentration with vascular access failure in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. METHODS: Between September 1989 and October 1995, 144 patients underwent a vascular access operation. In March 1997, 102 patients (56 M, 46 F) who had been followed up for more than 18 months (median; 37 months, range; 18-102 months) were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 52 years (range; 19-78 years). In 35 patients, renal disease was secondary to diabetes mellitus. The type of vascular access was a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft in 17 patients. Seventy-seven patients received recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) therapy during the follow-up period. Plasma fibrinogen, albumin, total cholesterol, hematocrit, platelets and creatinine were measured at the time of operation. Vascular access failure was defined as the occurrence of complications requiring transluminal angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy or surgical repair. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients had at least one vascular access failure and the incidence was 0.3 (range; 0-2.4) episodes per patient-year. The survival rate of vascular access was 78% (native fistula; 80%, PTFE graft; 71%) after 12 months and 70% (native fistula; 73%, PTFE graft; 51%) after 24 months. Older age, a PTFE graft, r-HuEPO therapy, higher hematocrit, lower albumin and higher fibrinogen levels were significantly associated with vascular access failure, whereas gender, diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol and platelet count were not. Plasma fibrinogen was inversely correlated with albumin (r=-0.38, P=0.001). The cumulative vascular access survival was significantly lower in patients with high plasma fibrinogen levels (> or = 460 mg/dl) compared with patients with low levels (< 460 mg/dl) (P=0.007). Independent risk factors for vascular access failure analysed by Cox's proportional hazards model were older age (RR; 1.36 by 10-year increment), higher fibrinogen level (RR; 1.20 by 100 mg/dl increment), PTFE graft (RR; 2.28) and r-HuEPO therapy (RR; 3.79). CONCLUSION: High plasma fibrinogen level is an independent risk factor for vascular access failure in haemodialysis patients.  (+info)

(6/4460) Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon.

The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies.  (+info)

(7/4460) Outcome and predictors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy: one-year follow-up of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons.

The outcome and predictors of virologic treatment failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were determined for 271 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected protease inhibitor-naive persons. During a follow-up of 48 weeks after the initiation of HAART, 6.3% of patients experienced at least one new AIDS-defining event, and 3.0% died. Virologic treatment failure occurred in 40% (indinavir, 27%; ritonavir, 30%; saquinavir, 59%; ritonavir plus saquinavir, 32%; chi2, P=.001). Risk factors for treatment failure were baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 per log10 copies increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA), baseline CD4 cell count (OR, 1. 35 per 100 CD4 cells/mm3 decrease), and use of saquinavir versus other protease inhibitors (OR, 3.21). During the first year of treatment, 53% of all patients changed (part of) their original HAART regimen at least once. This was significantly more frequent for regimens containing saquinavir (62%; 27% for virologic failure) or ritonavir (64%; 55% for intolerance) as single protease inhibitor.  (+info)

(8/4460) Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation.

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)