Negative immunoregulatory effects of antidepressants: inhibition of interferon-gamma and stimulation of interleukin-10 secretion.
There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. There is also some evidence that antidepressants may suppress the release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 by activated monocytes and IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) by activated T cells. This study was carried out to examine the effects of clomipramine, sertraline, and trazodone on the stimulated production of IFN gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, a negative immunoregulatory cytokine. Whole blood of nine healthy volunteers was stimulated with PHA, 5 micrograms/mL and LPS, 25 micrograms/mL for 72 hr with and without incubation with clomipramine, 10(-6) and 10(-9) M, sertraline, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, and trazodone, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M. All three antidepressants significantly reduced IFN gamma secretion, whereas clomipramine and sertraline significantly increased IL-10 secretion in culture supernatant. All three antidepressants significantly reduced the IFN gamma/IL-10 ratio. The results suggest that antidepressants, at concentrations in the therapeutical range, have negative immunoregulatory effects through inhibition of IFN gamma and stimulation of IL-10 release. (+info)
Serotonin inhibition of the NMDA receptor/nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in human neocortex slices: involvement of 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(1A) receptors.
The NMDA receptor/nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP pathway and its modulation by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was studied in slices of neocortical samples obtained from patients undergoing neurosurgery. The cyclic GMP elevation produced by 100 microM NMDA was blocked by 100 microM of the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) or by 10 microM of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-alpha] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ). The NMDA effect was prevented by 5-HT or by the 5-HT(2) agonist (+/-)-1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane ((+/-)-DOI; EC(50)=22 nM). The (+/-)-DOI inhibition was insensitive to the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL 100907 or the 5-HT(2B) antagonist rauwolscine; it was largely prevented by 1 microM of the non-selective 5-HT(2C) antagonists mesulergine (5-HT(2A,B,C)), ketanserin (5-HT(2A,C)) or SB 200646A (5-HT(2B,C)); it was completely abolished by 0.1 microM of the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084. The NMDA-induced cyclic GMP elevation also was potently inhibited by the selective 5-HT(2C) agonist RO 60-0175 and by the antidepressant trazodone, both added at 1 microM, in an SB 242084-sensitive manner. Finally, the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1 microM) inhibited the NMDA-evoked cyclic GMP response, an effect blocked by the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100635. In conclusion, the NMDA receptor/NO/cyclic GMP pathway in human neocortex slices can be potently inhibited by activation of 5-HT(2C) or 5-HT(1A) receptors. (+info)
Pharmacological aspects of erectile dysfunction.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common problem with a prevalence of approximately 50% in men aged 40 to 70. There are several etiologies for ED including vasculogenic, neurogenic, hormonal and/or psychogenic factors; one-fourth of ED cases can be drug-related. Penile erection involves a complex interaction between the CNS and local factors. It is a neurovascular event modulated by psychological and hormonal factors. Pharmacologically, neural modulation and endocrine status are very important to attaining penile erection. There have been several significant advances for the pharmacologic treatment of ED. Treatments include agents that are not only orally effective, but possess either local or central acting mechanisms of action. Apomorphine, a centrally-acting agent, is effective in the treatment of ED. Sildenafil, another orally effective agent, acts by inhibiting cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase Type V. Testosterone can be effective transdermally. Non-orally active agents include alprostadil and papaverine. Phentolamine and trazodone are effective in selected cases. Some agents can interact with other medications. Several pharmacological agents, some with central-acting mechanisms and some with Iocally-acting vascular effects, are therapeutically useful in the treatment of ED. (+info)
Effects of trazodone and imipramine on the biological rhythm: an analysis of sleep EEG and body core temperature.
Depression commonly involves abnormalities of the sleep-wake rhythm, the temperature rhythm, and other biological rhythms. The changes of these biological rhythms are caused in remission by medications. However, it has yet to be clarified whether the biological rhythms are changed as a result of recovery from depression or from the direct pharmacological effects of the antidepressants. Therefore, we have undertaken a study on the direct effects of the antidepressants trazodone and imipramine on the biological rhythms of healthy volunteers. The study involved 12 healthy male volunteers (ages 21 approximately 28 years, mean age 23.9+/-1.7 years) who had given written informed consent. Placebo, trazodone, and imipramine were each administered in a single blind manner four times a day, during the three-day study period. The total daily dosage of trazodone was 100 mg (50 mg in one subject), and of imipramine 40 mg (20 mg in one subject). Subjects were submitted to polysomnography (PSG) and body core temperature (rectal temperature) measurements during the study period. We compared the data concerning the antidepressants to those of the placebo. The results show that, with regard to the sleep rhythm, trazodone significantly increased slow wave sleep (SWS), but no changes were observed in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Imipramine significantly decreased REM sleep and prolonged the REM cycle. With regard to the temperature rhythm, trazodone showed a tendency to advance the appearance time of the minimal temperature. Imipramine significantly lowered the maximal temperature and decreased the difference between the maximal and the minimal temperature, but no changes in the phases were observed. Neither antidepressant had any effect on the temperature cycle. Trazodone and imipramine showed different effects on PSG. Furthermore, they had different effects on the temperature rhythm. The changes of the sleep-wake rhythm were greater than those of the temperature rhythm. Although the two antidepressants had different mechanisms of action, it is worthy of note that both directly influenced the biological rhythms of healthy volunteers. (+info)
A single dose study of trazodone with an assessment of its effect on mood and arousal.
1 A pharmacokinetic study of a single oral dose of a new antidepressant (trazodone) is described, linked to an attempt to measure changes in mood and arousal induced by the drug in normal subjects. 2 The drug had a measurable effect on arousal, but not on mood. It caused bradycardia (compared with placebo) and this persisted through the following night's sleep. This effect has not been completely explained. 3 The technique of mood and arousal measurement employed in this study seems potentially useful. (+info)
Open pilot study of gabapentin versus trazodone to treat insomnia in alcoholic outpatients.
Alcohol-dependent outpatients with persisting insomnia were treated with either gabapentin or trazodone. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 4-6 weeks on medication using the Sleep Problems Questionnaire (SPQ). Of 55 cases initially treated, 9% dropped out due to morning drowsiness. Of the remaining 50 cases, 34 were treated with gabapentin (mean dose +/- SD = 888 +/- 418 mg) at bedtime and 16 were treated with trazodone (105 +/- 57 mg) at bedtime. Both groups improved significantly on the SPQ but the gabapentin group improved significantly more than the trazodone group. Controlled studies are warranted to replicate these findings. (+info)
Piperazine-derived designer drug 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP): GC-MS studies on its metabolism and its toxicological detection in rat urine including analytical differentiation from its precursor drugs trazodone and nefazodone.
Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the piperazine-derived designer drug 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are described. mCPP was extensively metabolized, mainly by hydroxylation of the aromatic ring and by degradation of the piperazine moiety to the following metabolites: two hydroxy-mCPP isomers, N-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylenediamine, 3-chloroaniline, and two hydroxy-3-chloroaniline isomers. The hydroxy-mCPP metabolites were partially excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and/or sulfates, and the aniline derivatives were partially acetylated to N-acetyl-hydroxy-3-chloroaniline isomers and N-acetyl-3-chloroaniline. Our systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of mCPP and its previously mentioned metabolites in rat urine after single administration of a dose calculated from the doses commonly taken by drug users. The hydroxy-mCPP metabolites should be used as target analytes being the major metabolites of mCPP. Assuming similar metabolism, our STA procedure should be suitable for detection of an intake of mCPP in human urine. Furthermore, possibilities for differentiating an intake of mCPP from that of its precursor drugs trazodone or nefazodone, two common antidepressants, are described. Within the context of these studies, N-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylenediamine was identified as a new metabolite of these two antidepressants. (+info)
A comparative solid-phase extraction study for the simultaneous determination of fluvoxamine, mianserin, doxepin, citalopram, paroxetine, and etoperidone in whole blood by capillary gas-liquid chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.
This paper reports a simple and reliable gas chromatographic method with nitrogen-phosphorus detection without derivatization for the simultaneous detection of fluvoxamine, mianserin, doxepin, citalopram, paroxetine, and etoperidone in whole blood as part of a systematic toxicological analysis (STA). All drugs were studied at concentration levels of 100-2000 ng/mL, except paroxetine for which it was necessary to study at concentration levels of 400-8000 ng/mL. A comparative and validation study using two solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns, Chem Elut and Bond Elut Certify, was developed regarding their recovery, precision, sensitivity, and matrix purification efficiency. The Chem Elut columns, diatomaceous earth, are closely related to conventional liquid-liquid extraction. The Bond Elut Certify columns, more recently developed in the market, are mixed SPE (reversed-phase and cation exchange sorbent). Recoveries for the antidepressants using Chem Elut columns at 500 ng/mL (2000 ng/mL for paroxetine) were in the range 43-72% with intra- and interassay precisions of less than 10% and 16%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for fluvoxamine, mianserin, doxepin, citalopram, and etoperidone ranged from 18 to 236 ng/mL and 60 to 786 ng/mL, respectively. LOD and LOQ for paroxetine were 303 and 1009 ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries of these compounds using Bond Elut Certify columns at 500 ng/mL (2000 ng/mL for paroxetine) were in the range 52-83% with intra- and interassay precisions of less than 6% and 8%, respectively. LODs and LOQs for fluvoxamine, mianserin, doxepin, citalopram, and etoperidone ranged from 7 to 28 ng/mL and 23 to 93 ng/mL, respectively. LOD and LOQ for paroxetine were 113 and 376 ng/mL, respectively. An excellent linearity was observed with both procedures from the LOQs up to the upper studied concentration level. In general, higher recoveries, cleaner extracts, better sensitivity, better precision, and reduced solvent consumption and disposal were achieved for the screening of these antidepressants with the use of the mixed SPE Bond Elut Certify compared with Chem Elut columns. The application of these methods on a forensic case study is also presented. (+info)