Usefulness of PCR method for detection of Leishmania in Poland.
Leishmania parasites are the etiological agents of leishmaniosis, with severe course and often fatal prognosis, and the global number of cases has increased in recent decades. The gold standards for the diagnosis of leishmaniosis are microscopic examinations and culture in vitro of the different clinical specimens. The sensitivity of these methods is insufficient. Recent development in specific and sensitive molecular methods (PCR) allows for detection as well as identification of the parasite species (subspecies). The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of molecular methods (PCR) for detection of Leishmania species and consequently for the implementation of such methods in routine diagnostics of leishmaniosis in Polish patients returning from endemic areas of the disease. In our investigations we used 54 known Leishmania positive DNA templates (from culture and clinical specimens) received from the CDC (Atlanta, GA, USA). Moreover, 25 samples of bone marrow, blood or other tissues obtained from 18 Polish individuals suspected of leishmaniosis were also examined. In PCR we used two pairs of primers specific to the conserved region of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle (13A/13B and F/R). Using these primers we obtained amplicons in all DNA templates from the CDC and in three Polish patients suspected for Leishmania infection. In one sample from among these cases we also obtained positive results with DNA isolated from a blood specimen which was previously negative in microscopic examinations. (+info)
Risks of travel, benefits of a specialist consult.
Cholera - recommendations for prevention in travellers.
This article about cholera is part of our travel medicine series for 2010, providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Cholera is a severe diarrhoeal disease associated with worldwide pandemics. It affects vulnerable populations who lack adequate quality drinking water and sanitation. Travellers are generally at low risk of contracting cholera, even in endemic areas. It is prevented with general water and food precautions (also advisable for prevention of traveller's diarrhoea). In some situations, the oral killed whole cell B subunit vaccine may be recommended for travellers considered at risk. (+info)
Schistosomiasis among recreational users of Upper Nile River, Uganda, 2007.
This article forms part of our travel medicine series for 2010, providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. BACKGROUND: Rabies is an acute, almost invariably fatal, progressive encephalomyelitis caused by neurotropic lyssaviruses of the Rhabdoviridae family. OBJECTIVE: Rabies prevention, vaccines and postexposure prophylaxis are discussed, and information regarding vaccines, immunoglobulin products and vaccine regimens that may be encountered overseas is also given. DISCUSSION: Rabies viruses are present in most parts of the world, although it is mainly a problem in developing countries with more than 50,000 people dying from rabies each year, usually after a dog bite. All travellers require education regarding rabies prevention if travelling to an endemic area, and those at high risk of exposure should be offered pre-exposure vaccination. (+info)
Evaluating a sick child after travel to developing countries.