Inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A, but not type B, is an effective means of inducing anticonvulsant activity in the kindling model of epilepsy.
The anticonvulsant activity of inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) was reported early after the development of irreversible MAO inhibitors such as tranylcypromine, but was never clinically used because of the adverse effects of these compounds. The more recently developed reversible MAO inhibitors with selectivity for either the MAO-A or MAO-B isoenzyme forms have not been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy, so it is not known which type of MAO inhibitor is particularly effective in this respect. We compared the following drugs in the kindling model of epilepsy: 1) L-deprenyl (selegiline), i.e., an irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B, which, however, also inhibits MAO-A at higher doses, 2) the novel reversible MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 (3,4-dimethyl-7-(2-isopropyl-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-5-yl)-methoxy-coumarin), which is much more selective for MAO-B than L-deprenyl, 3) the novel reversible and highly selective MAO-A inhibitor LU 43839 (esuprone; 7-hydroxy-3, 4-dimethylcoumarin ethanesulfonate), and 4) the irreversible nonselective MAO inhibitor tranylcypromine. Esuprone proved to be an effective anticonvulsant in the kindling model with a similar potency as L-deprenyl. In contrast to esuprone and L-deprenyl, the selective MAO-B inhibitor LU 53439 was not effective in the kindling model; this substantiates the previous notion that the anticonvulsant activity of L-deprenyl is not related to MAO-B inhibition, but to other effects of this drug, such as inhibition of MAO-A. Drugs inhibiting both MAO-A and MAO-B to a similar extent (tranylcypromine) or combinations of selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors (esuprone plus LU 53439) had no advantage over MAO-A inhibition alone, but were less well tolerated. The data thus suggest that selective MAO-A inhibitors such as esuprone may be an interesting new approach for the treatment of epilepsy. (+info
Exercise, antidepressant medications, and enhanced brain derived neurotrophic factor expression.
Physical activity and antidepressant treatment have each separately been of significant interest for the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD); particularly the behavioral problems associated with this dementing disorder. We have found that combined antidepressant treatment and physical activity have an additive, potentiating effect on BDNF mRNA expression within several areas of the rat hippocampus. During the 20-day experimental period, animals were treated daily with imipramine (15 mg/kg) or tranylcypromine (7.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Exercising rat groups were given access to running wheels for the duration of the experiment. BDNF mRNA levels were assessed in several cell groups of the hippocampus by in situ hybridization, using a [35S] labelled riboprobe complementary to the full-length BDNF sequence, and computer-assisted densitometry. The combination of physical activity and antidepressant treatment for the 20-day period led to a significant potentiation of full-length BDNF mRNA levels within the dentate gyrus and CA 1, CA 3, and CA 4 cellular fields, above the levels obtained with each intervention alone. These results provide impetus for the study of physical exercise as a potential enhancer of treatment response to antidepressants. (+info
Increased tonic activation of rat forebrain 5-HT(1A) receptors by lithium addition to antidepressant treatments.
The present study was undertaken to determine whether lithium addition to long-term treatment with different classes of antidepressant drugs could induce a greater effect on the serotonin (5-HT) system than the drugs given alone. Because 5-HT(1A) receptor activation hyperpolarizes and inhibits the firing activity of CA(3) pyramidal neurons in the dorsal hippocampus, the degree of disinhibition produced by the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY 100635 was determined using in vivo extracellular recordings. In controls, as well as in rats receiving a lithium diet for 3 days, the administration of WAY 100635 (25-100 microg/kg, IV) did not modify the firing activity of dorsal hippocampus CA(3) pyramidal neurons. When the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (10 mg/kg/day, SC), the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine (2.5 mg/kg/day, SC) and the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10 mg/kg/day, SC) were administered alone for 21 days, a dose of 50 microg/kg of WAY 100635 was needed to increase significantly the firing activity of these neurons. On the other hand, WAY 100635, at a dose of only 25 microg/kg, increased significantly the firing rate of CA(3) pyramidal neurons in rats receiving both a long-term antidepressant treatment and a short-term lithium diet. It is concluded that the addition of lithium to antidepressant treatments produced a greater disinhibition of dorsal hippocampus CA(3) pyramidal neurons than any treatments given alone. The present results support the notion that the addition of lithium to antidepressants may produce a therapeutic response in treatment-resistant depression by enhancing 5-HT neurotransmission. (+info
cAMP response element-mediated gene transcription is upregulated by chronic antidepressant treatment.
Regulation of gene transcription via the cAMP-mediated second messenger pathway has been implicated in the actions of antidepressant drugs, but studies to date have not demonstrated such an effect in vivo. To directly study the regulation of cAMP response element (CRE)-mediated gene transcription by antidepressants, transgenic mice with a CRE-LacZ reporter gene construct were administered one of three different classes of antidepressants: a norepinephrine selective reuptake inhibitor (desipramine), a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine), or a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (tranylcypromine). Chronic, but not acute, administration of these antidepressants significantly increased CRE-mediated gene transcription, as well as the phosphorylation of CRE binding protein (CREB), in several limbic brain regions thought to mediate the action of antidepressants, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. These results demonstrate that chronic antidepressant treatment induces CRE-mediated gene expression in a neuroanatomically differentiated pattern and further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of these widely used therapeutic agents. (+info
Chronic antidepressant treatment increases neurogenesis in adult rat hippocampus.
Recent studies suggest that stress-induced atrophy and loss of hippocampal neurons may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antidepressants on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rat, using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) as a marker for dividing cells. Our studies demonstrate that chronic antidepressant treatment significantly increases the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus and hilus of the hippocampus. Administration of several different classes of antidepressant, but not non-antidepressant, agents was found to increase BrdU-labeled cell number, indicating that this is a common and selective action of antidepressants. In addition, upregulation of the number of BrdU-labeled cells is observed after chronic, but not acute, treatment, consistent with the time course for the therapeutic action of antidepressants. Additional studies demonstrated that antidepressant treatment increases the proliferation of hippocampal cells and that these new cells mature and become neurons, as determined by triple labeling for BrdU and neuronal- or glial-specific markers. These findings raise the possibility that increased cell proliferation and increased neuronal number may be a mechanism by which antidepressant treatment overcomes the stress-induced atrophy and loss of hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the therapeutic actions of antidepressant treatment. (+info
Human lymphocytes stimulate prostacyclin synthesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Involvement of endothelial cPLA2.
Prostacyclin (PGI2) contributes to the maintenance of a nonadhesive luminal surface in blood vessels due to its anti-platelet and vasodilatory properties. Here, we sought to determine whether peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) may regulate the PGI2 production of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cell-cell contact between HUVEC and lymphocytes markedly enhanced PGI2 synthesis as a function of the number of lymphocytes added. This stimulated synthesis was totally suppressed when lymphocytes and HUVEC were separated by a microporous insert. It was not due to prostaglandin H synthase up-regulation. The pretreatment of lymphocytes with the PGI2 synthase inhibitor tranylcypromine partially inhibited PGI2 synthesis (47%), suggesting a transcellular metabolism of the endothelial prostaglandin endoperoxide PGH2 by the lymphocyte PGI2 synthase. Experiments using [14C]arachidonate-labeled lymphocytes coincubated with unlabeled HUVEC, and [14C]arachidonate-labeled HUVEC coincubated with unlabeled lymphocytes showed that the arachidonic acid used for PGI2 synthesis was totally of endothelial origin. Furthermore, the PGI2 synthesis was strongly inhibited by the cytosolic phospholipase A2 inhibitor, MAFP and totally suppressed by the combination of the calcium chelators, BAPTA and EGTA. Collectively, these results suggest that lymphocytes trigger an outside-in signaling in endothelial cells involving cPLA2 activation. Overall, the switch-on for PGI2 synthesis induced by lymphocytes might serve as a protection against atherothrombogenesis. (+info
In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes by a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), and its nonamine analog, cyclopropylbenzene.
Currently, there are no selective, well characterized inhibitors for CYP2A6. Therefore, the effects of trans-(+/-)-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, on human liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) were studied to elucidate its selectivity. The IC50 value of tranylcypromine in coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6 model activity) was 0.42 +/- 0.07 microM and in chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation (CYP2E1 model activity) 3.0 +/- 1.1 microM. The IC50 values for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 activities were >10 microM. Potency and selectivity of tranylcypromine were strongly dependent on the amine group, because its nonamine analog cyclopropylbenzene was much less potent inhibitor of CYP1A, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 activities and did not inhibit at all CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 activities. In human liver microsomes tranylcypromine induced type II and cyclopropylbenzene type I difference spectrum. According to the double reciprocal analysis of these spectral responses both tranylcypromine and cyclopropylbenzene may have at least two P450-related binding sites in liver microsomes. The K(a) values of tranylcypromine varied from 4.5 to 15.1 microM and -34.3 to 167 microM in microsomes derived from three different livers and of cyclopropylbenzene from -1.6 to 10.1 microM and -34.6 and 75.2 microM in the same liver microsomes. Based on these results, tranylcypromine seems an adequately selective CYP2A6 inhibitor for in vitro use. (+info
Evaluation of methoxsalen, tranylcypromine, and tryptamine as specific and selective CYP2A6 inhibitors in vitro.
CYP2A6 is the principle enzyme metabolizing nicotine to its inactive metabolite cotinine. In this study, the selective probe reactions for each major cytochrome P450 (P450) were used to evaluate the specificity and selectivity of the CYP2A6 inhibitors methoxsalen, tranylcypromine, and tryptamine in cDNA-expressing and human liver microsomes. Phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6), diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation (CYP2C9), omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan O-demethylation (CYP2D6), 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin deethylation (CYP2B6), p-nitrophenol hydroxylation (CYP2E1), and omeprazole sulfonation (CYP3A4) were used as index reactions. Apparent K(i) values for inhibition of P450s' (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) activities showed that tranylcypromine, methoxsalen, and tryptamine have high specificity and relative selectivity for CYP2A6. In cDNA-expressing microsomes, tranylcypromine inhibited CYP2A6 (K(i) = 0.08 microM) with about 60- to 5000-fold greater potency relative to other P450s. Methoxsalen inhibited CYP2A6 (K(i) = 0.8 microM) with about 3.5- 94-fold greater potency than other P450s, except for CYP1A2 (K(i) = 0.2 microM). Tryptamine inhibited CYP2A6 (K(i) = 1.7 microM) with about 6.5- 213-fold greater potency relative to other P450s, except for CYP1A2 (K(i) = 1.7 microM). Similar results were also obtained with methoxsalen and tranylcypromine in human liver microsomes. R-(+)-Tranylcypromine, (+/-)-tranylcypromine, and S-(-)-tranylcypromine competitively inhibited CYP2A6-mediated metabolism of nicotine with apparent K(i) values of 0.05, 0.08, and 2.0 microM, respectively. Tranylcypromine [particularly R-(+) isomer], tryptamine, and methoxsalen are specific and relatively selective for CYP2A6 and may be useful in vivo to decrease smoking by inhibiting nicotine metabolism with a low risk of metabolic drug interactions. (+info