Exosome: from internal vesicle of the multivesicular body to intercellular signaling device.
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are secreted by a multitude of cell types as a consequence of fusion of multivesicular late endosomes/lysosomes with the plasma membrane. Depending on their origin, exosomes can play roles in different physiological processes. Maturing reticulocytes externalize obsolete membrane proteins such as the transferrin receptor by means of exosomes, whereas activated platelets release exosomes whose function is not yet known. Exosomes are also secreted by cytotoxic T cells, and these might ensure specific and efficient targeting of cytolytic substances to target cells. Antigen presenting cells, such as B lymphocytes and dendritic cells, secrete MHC class-I- and class-II-carrying exosomes that stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, dendritic-cell-derived exosomes, when used as a cell-free vaccine, can eradicate established murine tumors. Although the precise physiological target(s) and functions of exosomes remain largely to be resolved, follicular dendritic cells (accessory cells in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs) have recently been shown to bind B-lymphocyte-derived exosomes at their cell surface, which supports the notion that exosomes play an immunoregulatory role. Finally, since exosomes are derived from multivesicular bodies, their molecular composition might provide clues to the mechanism of protein and lipid sorting in endosomes. (+info)
Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on in vitro final oocyte maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis in striped bass, Morone saxatilis.
Recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was more potent than rhIGF-II at inducing in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), a marker for resumption of meiosis, in oocytes of striped bass. Treatment of ovarian fragments containing oocytes in intact follicles with rhIGF-I increased concentrations of estradiol-17beta and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) 17,20beta, 21-trihydoxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S) in the culture medium and decreased testosterone levels. The follicles were too immature for oocytes to complete GVBD in response to 20beta-S (MIS incompetent) or hCG. Addition of 20beta-S to cultures did not increase the percentage of oocytes completing GVBD in response to rhIGF-I or rhIGF-II. Bovine insulin was without effect on GVBD or steroid production. Incubation of MIS-competent follicles with actinomycin D, cyanoketone, trilostane, 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol had no effect on rhIGF-I-induced GVBD, but attenuated hCG-induced GVBD and 20beta-S production. Cycloheximide inhibited rhIGF-I-induced GVBD. Collectively, these observations indicate that IGF-I can induce GVBD via MIS- and transcription-independent pathways without coupled gap junctions between oocytes and granulosa cells or among granulosa cells, but requires protein synthesis to do so. An rhIGF-I analogue that does not bind IGF-binding proteins, des(1,3)IGF-I, was more potent than rhIGF-I in inducing GVBD, suggesting ovarian IGF-binding proteins may inhibit IGF-I action. (+info)
Microtubule and motor-dependent endocytic vesicle sorting in vitro.
Endocytic vesicles undergo fission to sort ligand from receptor. Using quantitative immunofluorescence and video imaging, we provide the first in vitro reconstitution of receptor-ligand sorting in early endocytic vesicles derived from rat liver. We show that to undergo fission, presegregation vesicles must bind to microtubules (MTs) and move upon addition of ATP. Over 13% of motile vesicles elongate and are capable of fission. After fission, one vesicle continues to move, whereas the other remains stationary, resulting in their separation. On average, almost 90% receptor is found in one daughter vesicle, whereas ligand is enriched by approximately 300% with respect to receptor in the other daughter vesicle. Although studies performed on polarity marked MTs showed approximately equal plus and minus end-directed motility, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that kinesins, but not dynein, were associated with these vesicles. Motility and fission were prevented by addition of 1 mM 5'-adenylylimido-diphosphate (AMP-PNP, an inhibitor of kinesins) or incubation with kinesin antibodies, but were unaffected by addition of 5 microM vanadate (a dynein inhibitor) or dynein antibodies. These studies indicate an essential role of kinesin-based MT motility in endocytic vesicle sorting, providing a system in which factors required for endocytic vesicle processing can be identified and characterized. (+info)
TRAPP stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange on Ypt1p.
TRAPP, a novel complex that resides on early Golgi, mediates the targeting of ER-to-Golgi vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. Previous studies have shown that YPT1, which encodes the small GTP-binding protein that regulates membrane traffic at this stage of the secretory pathway, interacts genetically with BET3 and BET5. Bet3p and Bet5p are 2 of the 10 identified subunits of TRAPP. Here we show that TRAPP preferentially binds to the nucleotide-free form of Ypt1p. Mutants with defects in several TRAPP subunits are temperature-sensitive in their ability to displace GDP from Ypt1p. Furthermore, the purified TRAPP complex accelerates nucleotide exchange on Ypt1p. Our findings imply that Ypt1p, which is present on ER-to-Golgi transport vesicles, is activated at the Golgi once it interacts with TRAPP. (+info)
Ordering the final events in yeast exocytosis.
In yeast, assembly of exocytic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between the secretory vesicle SNARE Sncp and the plasma membrane SNAREs Ssop and Sec9p occurs at a late stage of the exocytic reaction. Mutations that block either secretory vesicle delivery or tethering prevent SNARE complex assembly and the localization of Sec1p, a SNARE complex binding protein, to sites of secretion. By contrast, wild-type levels of SNARE complexes persist in the sec1-1 mutant after a secretory block is imposed, suggesting a role for Sec1p after SNARE complex assembly. In the sec18-1 mutant, cis-SNARE complexes containing surface-accessible Sncp accumulate in the plasma membrane. Thus, one function of Sec18p is to disassemble SNARE complexes on the postfusion membrane. (+info)
Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution during chemotactic responses.
To determine the distribution of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells responding to EGF as a chemoattractant, an EGFR-green fluorescent protein chimera was expressed in the MTLn3 mammary carcinoma cell line. The chimera was functional and easily visualized on the cell surface. In contrast to other studies indicating that the EGFR might be localized to certain regions of the plasma membrane, we found that the chimera is homogeneously distributed on the plasma membrane and becomes most concentrated in vesicles after endocytosis. In spatial gradients of EGF, endocytosed receptor accumulates on the upgradient side of the cell. Visualization of the binding of fluorescent EGF to cells reveals that the affinity properties of the receptor, together with its expression level on cells, can provide an initial amplification step in spatial gradient sensing. (+info)
Permeability and channel-mediated transport of boric acid across membrane vesicles isolated from squash roots.
Boron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and the boron content of plants differs greatly, but the mechanism(s) of its uptake into cells is not known. Boron is present in the soil solution as boric acid and it is in this form that it enters the roots. We determined the boron permeability coefficient of purified plasma membrane vesicles obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo) roots and found it to be 3 x 10(-7) +/-1.4 x 10(-8) cm s(-1), six times higher than the permeability of microsomal vesicles. Boric acid permeation of the plasma membrane vesicles was partially inhibited (30%-39%) by mercuric chloride and phloretin, a non-specific channel blocker. The inhibition by mercuric chloride was readily reversible by 2-mercaptoethanol. The energy of activation for boron transport into the plasma membrane vesicles was 10.2 kcal mol(-1). Together these data indicate that boron enters plant cells in part by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and in part through proteinaceous channels. Expression of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) PIP1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a 30% increase in the boron permeability of the oocytes. Other MIPs tested (PIP3, MLM1, and GlpF) did not have this effect. We postulate that certain MIPs, like those that have recently been shown to transport small neutral solutes, may also be the channels through which boron enters plant cells. (+info)
The Arabidopsis KNOLLE and KEULE genes interact to promote vesicle fusion during cytokinesis.
Partitioning of the cytoplasm during cytokinesis or cellularisation requires syntaxin-mediated membrane fusion [1-3]. Whereas in animals, membrane fusion promotes ingression of a cleavage furrow from the plasma membrane [4,5], somatic cells of higher plants form de novo a transient membrane compartment, the cell plate, which is initiated in the centre of the division plane and matures into a new cell wall and its flanking plasma membranes [6,7]. Cell plate formation results from the fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles delivered by a dynamic cytoskeletal array, the phragmoplast. Mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, KNOLLE (KN) and KEULE (KEU), cause abnormal seedlings with multinucleate cells and incomplete cell walls [1,8]. The KN gene encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin which localises to the cell plate . Here, we show that KN protein localisation is unaffected in keu mutant cells, which, like kn, display phragmoplast microtubules and accumulate ADL1 protein in the plane of cell division but vesicles fail to fuse with one another. Genetic interactions between KN and KEU were analysed in double mutant embryos. Whereas the haploid gametophytes gave rise to functional gametes, the embryos behaved like single cells displaying multiple, synchronously cycling nuclei, cell cycle-dependent microtubule arrays and ADL1 accumulation between pairs of daughter nuclei. This complete inhibition of cytokinesis from fertilisation indicates that KN and KEU, have partially redundant functions and interact specifically in vesicle fusion during cytokinesis of somatic cells. (+info)