Standardized comparison of glucose intolerance in west African-origin populations of rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica, and Caribbean migrants to Britain.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance in genetically similar African-origin populations within Cameroon and from Jamaica and Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects studied were from rural and urban Cameroon or from Jamaica, or were Caribbean migrants, mainly Jamaican, living in Manchester, England. Sampling bases included a local census of adults aged 25-74 years in Cameroon, districts statistically representative in Jamaica, and population registers in Manchester. African-Caribbean ethnicity required three grandparents of this ethnicity. Diabetes was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1985 criteria using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (2-h > or = 11.1 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment) and by the new American Diabetes Association criteria (fasting glucose > or = 7.0 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment). RESULTS: For men, mean BMIs were greatest in urban Cameroon and Manchester (25-27 kg/m2); in women, these were similarly high in urban Cameroon and Jamaica and highest in Manchester (27-28 kg/m2). The age-standardized diabetes prevalence using WHO criteria was 0.8% in rural Cameroon, 2.0% in urban Cameroon, 8.5% in Jamaica, and 14.6% in Manchester, with no difference between sexes (men: 1.1%, 1.0%, 6.5%, 15.3%, women: 0.5%, 2.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%), all tests for trend P < 0.001. Impaired glucose tolerance was more frequent in Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: The transition in glucose intolerance from Cameroon to Jamaica and Britain suggests that environment determines diabetes prevalence in these populations of similar genetic origin. (+info)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus: association study of five candidate genes in an Indian population of Guadeloupe, genetic contribution of FABP2 polymorphism.
We studied by PCR-RFLP 6 polymorphisms in these 5 candidate genes: Ala54Thr in the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene (FABP2), A to G substitution in the uncoupling protein type 1 gene (UCP1), Asp905Tyr in the protein phosphatase type 1 gene (PP1G), Trp64Arg in the human beta 3 adrenergic receptor gene (beta 3AR) and 2 RFLP sites of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (VDRTaq1 and VDRApa1). This study was conducted among 89 cases and 100 controls matched according to age, gender and absence of first degree family link (11 triplets with 2 controls for 1 case and 78 pairs with 1 control for 1 case). Cases and controls were taken among a sample of 429 individuals selected for the study of the prevalence of diabetes in this ethnic group from Guadeloupe. By conditional logistic regression analysis, there was a significant relation (p = 0.02) between the Ala54Thr FABP2 polymorphism and Type 2 DM. Multivariate analysis discriminate the FABP2 polymorphism (p = 0.10), a triglyceridemia over 2 g/l (p < 10(-3)) and high blood pressure (p = 10(-2)) as variables associated with Type 2 DM in this population. These findings suggest that FABP2 does not represent a major gene for Type 2 DM in this migrant Indian population living in Guadeloupe, but seems to be related to the metabolic insulin resistance syndrome. (+info)
Rapid appraisal of needs in reproductive health care in southern Sudan: qualitative study.
OBJECTIVES: To identify the need for reproductive health care among a community affected by conflict, and to ascertain the priority given by the community to reproductive health issues. DESIGN: Rapid appraisal. This comprised interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews, and group discussions. Secondary data were collated. Freelisting, ranking, and scenarios were used to obtain information. SETTING: Communities affected by conflict in southern Sudan. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews and group discussions were chosen purposively. Twenty interviews with key informants were undertaken, in-depth interviews were held with 14 women, and 23 group discussions were held. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Need for reproductive health care. Perceived priority afforded to reproductive health issues in comparison with other health problems. RESULTS: Reproductive health in general and sexually transmitted diseases in particular were important issues for these communities. Problems in reproductive health were ranked differently depending on the age and sex of the respondents. Perceptions about reproductive health issues in communities varied between service providers, and community leaders. Settled and displaced communities had different priorities and differing experiences of reproductive health problems and their treatment. CONCLUSION: Rapid appraisal could be used as the first step to involving communities in assessing needs and planning service provision. (+info)
Where health care has no access: the nomadic populations of sub-Saharan Africa.
Nomadic and seminomadic pastoralists make optimal use of scarce water and pasture in the arid regions south of the Sahara desert, spreading from Mauretania in the west to Somalia in East Africa. We attempted to summarize the fragmentary evidence from the literature on the health status of these populations and to assess the best ways to provide them with modern health care. Infant mortality is higher among nomadic than among neighbouring settled populations, but childhood malnutrition is less frequent. Nomads often avoid exposure to infectious agents by moving away from epidemics such as measles. Trachoma is highly prevalent due to flies attracted by cattle. The high prevalence of tuberculosis is ascribed to the presence of cattle, crowded sleeping quarters and lack of health care; treatment compliance is generally poor. Guinea worm disease is common due to unsafe water sources. Helminth infections are relatively rare as people leave their waste behind when they move. Malaria is usually epidemic, leading to high mortality. Sexually transmitted diseases spread easily due to lack of treatment. Leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis are encountered; brucellosis occurs but most often goes undetected. Drought forces nomads to concentrate near water sources or even into relief camps, with often disastrous consequences for their health. Existing health care systems are in the hands of settled populations and rarely have access to nomads due to cultural, political and economic obstacles. A primary health care system based on nomadic community health workers is outlined and an example of a successful tuberculosis control project is described. Nomadic populations are open to modern health care on the condition that this is not an instrument to control them but something they can control themselves. (+info)
An iatrogenic epidemic of benign meningioma.
Head irradiation, the acceptable mode of treatment for tinea capitis in the past, is recognized today as a causative factor for meningioma. This treatment was applied en mass to immigrants coming to Israel from North Africa and the Middle East during the 1950s. In order to estimate the effect of the differential radiation treatment on the rates of meningioma in the total population, the authors assessed time trends of this disease in Israel over the past 40 years by main ethnic origin. Cohort analysis shows a marked incidence rise in the North African-born cohorts born in 1940-1954 starting from the 1980s. A similar pattern is seen in the Middle Eastern born, although the increase is not as sharp. In consequence, there is a crossover of the interethnic incidence curves in the 1940-1949 cohort. Comparison of the relative risk between 1940-1954 cohorts that comprised most of the irradiated with 1930-1939 cohorts, who were largely free of the radiation, shows that the North African born have the largest relative risk of 4.62, followed by the Middle Eastern born, with a relative risk of 1.95, while the European-American born have a relative risk close to 1. The differences between the three areas of birth are statistically significant. The data illustrate the potential risk of administering highly potent therapy for an essentially benign disease that led, in turn, to a drastic change in the national meningioma pattern. (+info)
An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.
In February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic signs, abdominal pain, and coughing. In 1 individual, hemorrhagic manifestations were observed. The neurologic signs included an altered level of consciousness, convulsions, and coma. Malaria was initially suspected, but the patients showed negative blood films and failed to respond to antimicrobial drugs. A total of 35 sera collected from the military patients in the acute phase were tested for the presence of IgM against vector-borne agents. Serum IgM antibodies against West Nile fever virus were found in 23 patients (66%), against Chikungunya virus in 12 patients (34%), against dengue virus in 1 patient (3%), and against Rickettsia typhi in 1 patient (3%). All sera were negative for IgM antibody against Rift Valley fever virus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, and Sindbis virus. These data suggest that infections with West Nile fever virus have been the main cause of the outbreak. (+info)
Gallstone disease in Peruvian coastal natives and highland migrants.
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we found that gallstones were a common occurrence in the high altitude villages of the Peruvian Andes. AIMS: To determine if high altitude (> or = 1500 m) is a contributing risk factor for gallstone disease. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in a periurban community in Lima, Peru, and compared the prevalence of gallstone disease between coastal natives, highland (Sierra) natives and Sierra natives who had migrated to the coast. We also compared the prevalence rates from this study with those from a previous study conducted at high altitude. We examined 1534 subjects >15 years of age for gallstone disease. Subjects were interviewed for the presence or absence of risk factors. RESULTS: Gallstone disease was more common in females (16.1 cases per 100, 95% CI 13.8-18.2) than in males (10.7 per 100, 95% CI 8.0-13.4). Females had a greater risk of gallstone disease, especially if they had used oral contraception and/or had four or more children. The age adjusted prevalence was not significantly different between coastal natives, Sierra migrants, and Andean villagers. The prevalence of gallstone disease was not associated with time since migration or with having native Sierra parents. After adjusting for other risk factors, Sierra natives who migrated to the coast had a lower prevalence of gallstone disease than coastal natives (odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that high altitude is not a positive risk factor for gallstone disease and confirms that this disease is common in Peruvians, which may be attributable to Peruvian-Indian ethnicity. (+info)
Lifetime prevalence of and risk factors for psychiatric disorders among Mexican migrant farmworkers in California.
OBJECTIVES: In this study, the prevalence of and risk factors for 12 psychiatric disorders were examined by sex and ethnicity (Indian vs non-Indian) among Mexican migrant farm-workers working in Fresno County, California. METHODS: Subjects aged 18 through 59 years were selected under a cluster sampling design (n = 1001). A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used for case ascertainment. The effects of sociodemographic and acculturation factors on lifetime psychiatric disorders were tested. RESULTS: Lifetime rates of any psychiatric disorder were as follows: men, 26.7% (SE = 1.9); women, 16.8% (SE = 1.7); Indians, 26.0% (SE = 4.5); non-Indians, 20.1% (SE = 1.3). Total lifetime rates were as follows: affective disorders, 5.7%; anxiety disorders, 12.5%; any substance abuse or dependence, 8.7%; antisocial personality, 0.2%. Lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder was lower for migrants than for Mexican Americans and for the US population as a whole. High acculturation and primary US residence increased the likelihood of lifetime psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results underscore the risk posed by cultural adjustment problems, the potential for progressive deterioration of this population's mental health, and the need for culturally appropriate mental health services. (+info)