Epithelial hyperproliferation and transglutaminase 1 gene expression in Stevens-Johnson syndrome conjunctiva.
In Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pathological keratinization of the ordinarily nonkeratinized corneal and conjunctival mucosal epithelia results in severe visual loss. We examined conjunctiva covering cornea in five eyes in the chronic cicatricial phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Normal conjunctiva from five age-matched individuals was studied also. The number of epithelial cells in Stevens-Johnson syndrome conjunctiva that were immunoreactive with a monoclonal antibody, Ki-67, to a nuclear antigen found only in proliferating cells was greater than normal (93.8+/-19.8 cells above 100 basal cells versus 12.8+/-0.5 cells above 100 basal cells; P = 0.009). In addition, although clinical inflammation was mild, massive lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the substantia propria of conjunctiva covering cornea. In situ hybridization documented transglutaminase 1 (keratinocyte transglutaminase) mRNA in suprabasal cells of the abnormally thickened conjunctival epithelium in all Stevens-Johnson syndrome patients. In contrast, no message was detected in normal conjunctival or corneal epithelia. Transglutaminase 1 is expressed during the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes where it helps synthesize cornified cell envelopes. We speculate that in Stevens-Johnson syndrome, epithelial hyperproliferation, and transglutaminase 1 gene expression lead to the pathological keratinization of ocular surface mucosal epithelia. (+info)
The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood.
Coagulation in crayfish blood is based on the transglutaminase-mediated crosslinking of a specific plasma clotting protein. Here we report the cloning of the subunit of this clotting protein from a crayfish hepatopancreas cDNA library. The ORF encodes a protein of 1,721 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 15 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that the clotting protein is homologous to vitellogenins, which are proteins found in vitellogenic females of egg-laying animals. The clotting protein and vitellogenins are all lipoproteins and share a limited sequence similarity to certain other lipoproteins (e.g., mammalian apolipoprotein B and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) and contain a stretch with similarity to the D domain of mammalian von Willebrand factor. The crayfish clotting protein is present in both sexes, unlike the female-specific vitellogenins. Electron microscopy was used to visualize individual clotting protein molecules and to study the transglutaminase-mediated clotting reaction. In the presence of an endogenous transglutaminase, the purified clotting protein molecules rapidly assemble into long, flexible chains that occasionally branch. (+info)
Adhesive and mammalian transglutaminase substrate properties of Candida albicans Hwp1.
The pathogenesis of candidiasis involves invasion of host tissues by filamentous forms of the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Morphology-specific gene products may confer proinvasive properties. A hypha-specific surface protein, Hwp1, with similarities to mammalian small proline-rich proteins was shown to serve as a substrate for mammalian transglutaminases. Candida albicans strains lacking Hwp1 were unable to form stable attachments to human buccal epithelial cells and had a reduced capacity to cause systemic candidiasis in mice. This represents a paradigm for microbial adhesion that implicates essential host enzymes. (+info)
Transglutaminase cross-linking properties of the small proline-rich 1 family of cornified cell envelope proteins. Integration with loricrin.
Small proline-rich 1 (SPR1) proteins are important for barrier function in stratified squamous epithelia. To explore their properties, we expressed in bacteria a recombinant human SPR1 protein and isolated native SPR1 proteins from cultured mouse keratinocytes. By circular dichroism, they possess no alpha or beta structure but have some organized structure associated with their central peptide repeat domain. The transglutaminase (TGase) 1 and 3 enzymes use the SPR1 proteins as complete substrates in vitro but in different ways: head domain A sequences at the amino terminus were used preferentially for cross-linking by TGase 3, whereas those in head domain B sequences were used for cross-linking by TGase 1. The TGase 2 enzyme cross-linked SPR1 proteins poorly. Together with our data base of 141 examples of in vivo cross-links between SPRs and loricrin, this means that both TGase 1 and 3 are required for cross-linking SPR1 proteins in epithelia in vivo. Double in vitro cross-linking experiments suggest that oligomerization of SPR1 into large polymers can occur only by further TGase 1 cross-linking of an initial TGase 3 reaction. Accordingly, we propose that TGase 3 first cross-links loricrin and SPRs together to form small interchain oligomers, which are then permanently affixed to the developing CE by further cross-linking by the TGase 1 enzyme. This is consistent with the known consequences of diminished barrier function in TGase 1 deficiency models. (+info)
Essential roles of retinoic acid signaling in interdigital apoptosis and control of BMP-7 expression in mouse autopods.
We previously reported that mice lacking the RARgamma gene and one or both alleles of the RARbeta gene (i.e., RARbeta+/-/RARgamma-/- and RARbeta-/-/RARgamma-/- mutants) display a severe and fully penetrant interdigital webbing (soft tissue syndactyly), caused by the persistence of the fetal interdigital mesenchyme (Ghyselinck et al., 1997, Int. J. Dev. Biol. 41, 425-447). In the present study, these compound mutants were used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in retinoic acid (RA)-dependent formation of the interdigital necrotic zones (INZs). The mutant INZs show a marked decrease in the number of apoptotic cells accompanied by an increase of cell proliferation. This marked decrease was not paralleled by a reduction of the number of macrophages, indicating that the chemotactic cues which normally attract these cells into the INZs were not affected. The expression of a number of genes known to be involved in the establishment of the INZs, the patterning of the autopod, and/or the initiation of apoptosis was also unaffected. These genes included BMP-2, BMP-4, Msx-1, Msx-2, 5' members of Hox complexes, Bcl2, Bax, and p53. In contrast, the mutant INZs displayed a specific, graded, down-regulation of tissue transglutaminase (tTG) promoter activity and of stromelysin-3 expression upon the removal of one or both alleles of the RARbeta gene from the RARgamma null genetic background. As retinoic acid response elements are present in the promoter regions of both tTG and stromelysin-3 genes, we propose that RA might increase the amount of cell death in the INZs through a direct modulation of tTG expression and that it also contributes to the process of tissue remodeling, which accompanies cell death, through an up-regulation of stromelysin-3 expression in the INZs. Approximately 10% of the RARbeta-/- /RARgamma-/- mutants displayed a supernumerary preaxial digit on hindfeet, which is also a feature of the BMP-7 null phenotype (Dudley et al., 1995, Genes Dev. 9, 2795-2807; Luo et al., 1995, Genes Dev. 9, 2808-2820). BMP-7 was globally down-regulated at an early stage in the autopods of these RAR double null mutants, prior to the appearance of the digital rays. Therefore, RA may exert some of its effects on anteroposterior autopod patterning through controlling BMP-7 expression. (+info)
Interaction of tissue transglutaminase with nuclear transport protein importin-alpha3.
Tissue transglutaminase is a multifunctional enzyme which has been involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recently, nuclear localization of tTG has been reported indicating the potential of active nuclear transport. In this study we use the yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation to show that tTG interacts with the nuclear transport protein importin-alpha3. Using electron microscopy we demonstrate that nuclear expression of tTG in a non-small cell lung cancer cell line is induced by retinoic acid (RA). These data suggest that importin-alpha3 could mediate active nuclear transport of tTG which may be important for the regulation of critical cellular processes. (+info)
Involucrin cross-linking by transglutaminase 1. Binding to membranes directs residue specificity.
The transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1) enzyme is essential for the assembly of the cell envelope barrier in stratified squamous epithelia. It is usually bound to membranes, but to date most studies with it have involved solution assays. Here we describe an in vitro model system for characterizing the function of TGase 1 on the surface of synthetic lipid vesicles (SLV) of composition similar to eukaryote plasma membranes. Recombinant baculovirus-expressed human TGase 1 readily binds to SLV and becomes active in cross-linking above 10 microM Ca2+, in comparison to above 100 microM in solution assays, suggesting that the membrane surface is important for enzyme function. Involucrin also binds to SLV containing 12-18% phosphatidylserine and at Ca2+ concentrations above 1 microM. In reactions of involucrin with TGase 1 enzyme in solution, 80 of its 150 glutamines serve as donor residues. However, on SLV carrying both involucrin and TGase 1, only five glutamines serve as donors, of which glutamine 496 was the most favored. As controls, there was no change in specificity toward the glutamines of other substrates used by free or SLV-bound TGase 1 enzyme. We propose a model in which involucrin and TGase 1 bind to membranes shortly after expression in differentiating keratinocytes, but cross-linking begins only later as intracellular Ca2+ levels increase. Furthermore, the data suggest that the membrane surface regulates the steric interaction of TGase 1 with substrates such as involucrin to permit specific cross-linking for initiation of cell envelope barrier formation. (+info)
Inhibition of factor XIIIa-mediated incorporation of fibronectin into fibrin by pulmonary surfactant.
Intra-alveolar deposition of exudated plasma proteins is a hallmark of acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. In particular, fibrin and fibronectin may provide a primary matrix for fibrotic lung remodeling in the alveolar compartment. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of two surfactant preparations on the incorporation of fibronectin into fibrin. We observed that surfactant phospholipids are associated with insoluble fibrin, factor XIIIa-cross-linked fibrin, and cross-linked fibrin with incorporated fibronectin. Factor XIIIa-mediated binding of fibronectin to fibrin was noticeably altered in the presence of surfactant. Coincubation with two different commercially available surfactants but not with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine alone resulted in a reduction of fibronectin incorporation into fibrin clots by approximately one-third. This effect was not dependent on the calcium concentration. We conclude that 1) factor XIIIa-cross-linked fibrin-fibronectin is able to incorporate surfactant phospholipids in amounts comparable to fibrin clots without fibronectin and 2) the binding of fibronectin to fibrin is partially inhibited in the presence of pulmonary surfactant. (+info)