Guinea pig transfer factor-like activity detected in vitro.
"Transfer factor" was prepared by Sephadex G-25 chromatography of lymph node cell lysates from guinea pigs immunized with ovalbumin or bovine gamma globulin. Treatment of nonimmune peritoneal exudate cells with the transfer factor and specific antigen leads to inhibition of migration of the cells, whereas cells treated with the transfer factor alone or specific antigen alone are not inhibited from migrating. An average of 24-28% inhibition is observed in the presence of transfer factor and specific antigen, but only 5-15% inhibition in the presence of transfer factor and nonspecific antigen. The guinea pig transfer factor we have tested in vitro has some physical characteristics in common with human transfer factor. (+info)
Immunodeficiency diseases. I. T-lymphocyte precursors and T-lymphocyte differentiation in partial Di George syndrome.
Immunological and pathological studies in a case of partial Di George syndrome revealed an absence of parathyroids, a major hypoplasia of thymus but a relatively moderate decrease in peripheral T-lymphocyte numbers and functions. After in vitro incubation with normal thymus extracts, a normal proportion of bone marrow cells was induced to differentiate into cells with characteristics of T lymphocytes, thus establishing the presence of T-cell precursors in the patient's bone marrow. (+info)
Stimulation of lymphocytes by antigen in microplate cultures; absence of an effect of transfer factor in vitro.
The best conditions for the optimum stimulation of human leucocytes by antigens, including protein purified derivative (PPD), streptokinase-streptodornase varidase (SKSD) and tetanus toxoid have been studied in microplate cultures. The leucocytes of each donor have their own characteristic response to antigen which depends on the culturing conditions such as antigen concentrations, cell concentrations and the time of measuring the rate of DNA synthesis. Thus, no conditions provide a universal optimum for antigen stimulation in vitro. Leucocyte dialysates, i.e. potential transfer factors, have been prepared from donors, who between them are strongly positive to the antigens PPD, SKSD, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Keyhole limpet haemocyanin. In contrast to some previous reports these leucocyte dialysates had no effect on the thymidine incorporation by leucocytes grown in the presence of these antigens. It is suggested that the selection of optimal conditions for the response to antigen may have obscured the effect of any non-specific enhancement of reactivity b lyeucocyte dialysates. (+info)
Defective mononuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in the Chediak-Higashi syndrome of humans, mink, and cattle.
Chemotaxis of mononuclear leukocytes from humans, mink, and cattle was evaluated in vitro using a morphologic Boyden chamber technique and a new 51-Cr-labeled mononuclear radioassay with a double micropore filter system. Significantly decreased mononuclear leukocyte chemotactic response were noted when human, mink, or cattle Chediak-Higashi cells were tested using autologous serum or endotoxin-activated autolotous serum. A similar Chediak-Higashi mononuclear leukocyte defect was noted in humans when kallikrein or dialyzable transfer factor were used as the chemotactic stimulus. Studies using smaller pore filters in the chemotactic chamber exaggerated the chemotactic defect. Serum from Chediak-Higashi subjects had normal chemotactic activity. Additional studies on the spontaneous (random) locomotion of Chediak-Higashi mononuclear leukocytes revealed normal results when a capillary tube assay system was used, but abnormal results were obtained when a Boyden chamber micropore filter assay was used, demonstrating fundamental differences in these two assays of random locomotion. It is clear from these studies that defective mononuclear leukocyte chemotaxis is another feature of the imparied host defenses in the Chediak-Higashi syndrome that may contribute to the marked susceptibility to pyogenic infections so characteristic of this dease. (+info)
Transfer factors: identification of conserved sequences in transfer factor molecules.
BACKGROUND: Transfer factors are small proteins that "transfer" the ability to express cell-mediated immunity from immune donors to non-immune recipients. We developed a process for purifying specific transfer factors to apparent homogeneity. This allowed us to separate individual transfer factors from mixtures containing several transfer factors and to demonstrate the antigen-specificity of transfer factors. Transfer factors have been shown to be an effective means for correction of deficient cellular immunity in patients with opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis or recurrent Herpes simplex and to provide prophylactic immunity against varicella-zoster in patients with acute leukemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transfer factors of bovine and murine origin were purified by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Cyanogen bromide digests were sequenced. The properties of an apparently conserved sequence on expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by transfer factor recipients were assessed. RESULTS: A novel amino acid sequence, LLYAQDL/VEDN, was identified in each of seven transfer factor preparations. These peptides would not transfer expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity to recipients, which indicates that they are not sufficient for expression of the specificity or immunological properties of native transfer factors. However, administration of the peptides to recipients of native transfer factors blocked expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by the recipients. The peptides were not immunosuppressive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the peptides may represent the portion of transfer factors that binds to the "target cells" for transfer factors. Identification of these cells will be helpful in defining the mechanisms of action of transfer factors. (+info)
Clinical applications of the continuous flow blood separator machine.
The NCl/IBM or Aminco Continuous Flow Blood Separator Machine is a safe apparatus for the selective removal or exchange of either packed red blood cells, leucocyte-rich or platelet-rich layers or plasma. Abnormal fractions from any of these layers may be collected and discarded. Normal constituents may be collected for therapeutic uses. The wide scope of its applications includes important uses in clinical immunology: temporary provision of good leucocytes or platelets; harvesting of immune leucocytes (preparation of transfer factor at up to 10 units per harvest); removal of cryo- or macro-globulins, immune complexes or blocking factors; replacement therapy for antibody or complement deficiencies. Examples are given of such uses together with some of the medical problems so far encountered. (+info)
Randomized trial of transfer factor treatment of human warts.
Dialysed transfer factor, prepared from the leucocytes of a donor whose warts had undergone recent spontaneous regression, was used in the treatment of a child with the Wiskott--Aldrich syndrome. The child then had a spontaneous regression at multiple warty areas. A similar relationship was seen in four otherwise healthy patients in a pilot study. A randomized double-blind study of thirty patients failed to confirm a causal relationship between the transfer factor therapy (equivalent to 2-1 X 10(8) leucocytes) and wart regressions. The need for randomized trials of transfer factor therapy for diseases with a variable natural history is emphasized. (+info)
Immunization against Schistosoma mansoni in rhesus monkeys and the requirement of activation of both cell-mediated and humoral mechanisms.
When groups of rhesus monkeys were pretreated with BCG plus hyperimmune serum from monkeys with chronic schistosomiasis or with dialyzable transfer factor from uninfected monkeys plus hyperimmune serum and were challenged with 1,500 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni, the mean worm burdens were significantly lower than that of untreated controls. Pretreatment with neither BCG alone nor Corynebacterium parvum plus a membrane antigen of adult worms of S. mansoni affected susceptibility. Neither lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens or schistosome antigen nor serological responsiveness (as measured by gel diffusion, Cercarienhullenreaktion, circumoval precipitation, or enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) correlated with the degree of resistance of the animals to S. mansoni. The pretreatment procedures used did not cause any abnormal histopathological responses and did not alter the characteristic host response to schistosome eggs in the lungs, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, and colon. (+info)