(1/695) The GTPase activating factor for transducin in rod photoreceptors is the complex between RGS9 and type 5 G protein beta subunit.
Proteins of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family modulate the duration of intracellular signaling by stimulating the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits. It has been established that the ninth member of the RGS family (RGS9) participates in accelerating the GTPase activity of the photoreceptor-specific G protein, transducin. This process is essential for timely inactivation of the phototransduction cascade during the recovery from a photoresponse. Here we report that functionally active RGS9 from vertebrate photoreceptors exists as a tight complex with the long splice variant of the G protein beta subunit (Gbeta5L). RGS9 and Gbeta5L also form a complex when coexpressed in cell culture. Our data are consistent with the recent observation that several RGS proteins, including RGS9, contain G protein gamma-subunit like domain that can mediate their association with Gbeta5 (Snow, B. E., Krumins, A. M., Brothers, G. M., Lee, S. F., Wall, M. A., Chung, S., Mangion, J., Arya, S., Gilman, A. G. & Siderovski, D. P. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 13307-13312). We report an example of such a complex whose cellular localization and function are clearly defined. (+info)
(2/695) Putative mammalian taste receptors: a class of taste-specific GPCRs with distinct topographic selectivity.
Taste represents a major form of sensory input in the animal kingdom. In mammals, taste perception begins with the recognition of tastant molecules by unknown membrane receptors localized on the apical surface of receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelium. We report the cloning and characterization of two novel seven-transmembrane domain proteins expressed in topographically distinct subpopulations of taste receptor cells and taste buds. These proteins are specifically localized to the taste pore and are members of a new group of G protein-coupled receptors distantly related to putative mammalian pheromone receptors. We propose that these genes encode taste receptors. (+info)
(3/695) Roles of the transducin alpha-subunit alpha4-helix/alpha4-beta6 loop in the receptor and effector interactions.
The visual GTP-binding protein, transducin, couples light-activated rhodopsin (R*) with the effector enzyme, cGMP phosphodiesterase in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. The region corresponding to the alpha4-helix and alpha4-beta6 loop of the transducin alpha-subunit (Gtalpha) has been implicated in interactions with the receptor and the effector. Ala-scanning mutagenesis of the alpha4-beta6 region has been carried out to elucidate residues critical for the functions of transducin. The mutational analysis supports the role of the alpha4-beta6 loop in the R*-Gtalpha interface and suggests that the Gtalpha residues Arg310 and Asp311 are involved in the interaction with R*. These residues are likely to contribute to the specificity of the R* recognition. Contrary to the evidence previously obtained with synthetic peptides of Gtalpha, our data indicate that none of the alpha4-beta6 residues directly or significantly participate in the interaction with and activation of phosphodiesterase. However, Ile299, Phe303, and Leu306 form a network of interactions with the alpha3-helix of Gtalpha, which is critical for the ability of Gtalpha to undergo an activational conformational change. Thereby, Ile299, Phe303, and Leu306 play only an indirect role in the effector function of Gtalpha. (+info)
(4/695) The alpha-helical domain of Galphat determines specific interaction with regulator of G protein signaling 9.
RGS proteins (regulators of G protein signaling) are potent accelerators of the intrinsic GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits (GAPs), thus controlling the response kinetics of a variety of cell signaling processes. Most RGS domains that have been studied have relatively little GTPase activating specificity especially for G proteins within the Gi subfamily. Retinal RGS9 is unique in its ability to act synergistically with a downstream effector cGMP phosphodiesterase to stimulate the GTPase activity of the alpha subunit of transducin, Galphat. Here we report another unique property of RGS9: high specificity for Galphat. The core (RGS) domain of RGS9 (RGS9) stimulates Galphat GTPase activity by 10-fold and Galphai1 GTPase activity by only 2-fold at a concentration of 10 microM. Using chimeric Galphat/Galphai1 subunits we demonstrated that the alpha-helical domain of Galphat imparts this specificity. The functional effects of RGS9 were well correlated with its affinity for activated Galpha subunits as measured by a change in fluorescence of a mutant Galphat (Chi6b) selectively labeled at Cys-210. Kd values for RGS9 complexes with Galphat and Galphai1 calculated from the direct binding and competition experiments were 185 nM and 2 microM, respectively. The gamma subunit of phosphodiesterase increases the GAP activity of RGS9. We demonstrate that this is because of the ability of Pgamma to increase the affinity of RGS9 for Galphat. A distinct, nonoverlapping pattern of RGS and Pgamma interaction with Galphat suggests a unique mechanism of effector-mediated GAP function of the RGS9. (+info)
(5/695) Nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity in soluble transducin preparations biochemical properties and possible role of transducin-beta as phosphorylated enzyme intermediate.
Known nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are oligomers of 17-23-kDa subunits and catalyze the reaction N1TP + N2DP --> N1DP + N2TP via formation of a histidine-phosphorylated enzyme intermediate. NDPKs are involved in the activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) by catalyzing the formation of GTP from GDP, but the properties of G-protein-associated NDPKs are still incompletely known. The aim of our present study was to characterize NDPK in soluble preparations of the retinal G-protein transducin. The NDPK is operationally referred to as transducin-NDPK. Like known NDPKs, transducin-NDPK utilizes NTPs and phosphorothioate analogs of NTPs as substrates. GDP was a more effective phosphoryl group acceptor at transducin-NDPK than ADP and CDP, and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) was a more effective thiophosphoryl group donor than adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (ATP[S]). In contrast with their action on known NDPKs, mastoparan and mastoparan 7 had no stimulatory effect on transducin-NDPK. Guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) potentiated [3H]GTP[S] formation from [3H]GDP and ATP[S] but not [3H]GTP[S] formation from [3H]GDP and GTP[S]. Depending on the thiophosphoryl group acceptor and donor, [3H]NTP[S] formation was differentially regulated by Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+. [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP [32P]phosphorylated, and [35S]ATP[S] [35S]thiophosphorylated, a 36-kDa protein comigrating with transducin-beta. p[NH]ppG potentiated [35S]thiophosphorylation of the 36-kDa protein. 32P-labeling of the 36-kDa protein showed characteristics of histidine phosphorylation. There was no evidence for (thio)phosphorylation of 17-23-kDa proteins. Our data show the following: (a) soluble transducin preparations contain a GDP-prefering and guanine nucleotide-regulated NDPK; (b) transducin-beta may serve as a (thio)phosphorylated NDPK intermediate; (c) transducin-NDPK is distinct from known NDPKs and may consist of multiple kinases or a single kinase with multiple regulatory domains. (+info)
(6/695) GABA(B) receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of rat olfactory bulb.
Previous studies have shown that GABA(B) receptors facilitate cyclic AMP formation in brain slices likely through an indirect mechanism involving intracellular second messengers. In the present study, we have investigated whether a positive coupling of GABA(B) receptors to adenylyl cyclase could be detected in a cell-free preparation of rat olfactory bulb, a brain region where other Gi/Go-coupled neurotransmitter receptors have been found to stimulate the cyclase activity. The GABA(B) receptor agonist (-)-baclofen significantly increased basal adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of the granule cell and external plexiform layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer. The adenylyl cyclase stimulation was therefore examined in granule cell layer membranes. The (-)-baclofen stimulation (pD2=4.53) was mimicked by 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid (pD2=4.60) and GABA (pD2=3.56), but not by (+)-baclofen, 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid, muscimol and isoguvacine. The stimulatory effect was counteracted by the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP 35348 (pA2=4.31), CGP 55845 A (pA2=7.0) and 2-hydroxysaclofen (pKi=4.22). Phaclofen (1 mM) was inactive. The (-)-baclofen stimulation was not affected by quinacrine, indomethacin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and staurosporine, but was completely prevented by pertussis toxin and significantly reduced by the alpha subunit of transducin, a betagamma scavenger. The betagamma subunits of transducin stimulated the cyclase activity and this effect was not additive with that produced by (-)-baclofen. In the external plexiform and granule cell layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer, (-)-baclofen enhanced the adenylyl cyclase stimulation elicited by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) 38. Conversely, the adenylyl cyclase activity stimulated by either forskolin or Ca2+/calmodulin-(Ca2+/CaM) was inhibited by (-)-baclofen in all the olfactory bulb layers examined. These data demonstrate that in specific layers of rat olfactory bulb activation of GABA(B) receptors enhances basal and neurotransmitter-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by a mechanism involving betagamma subunits of Gi/Go. This positive coupling is associated with a widespread inhibitory effect on forskolin- and Ca2+/CaM-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. (+info)
(7/695) X-linked late-onset sensorineural deafness caused by a deletion involving OA1 and a novel gene containing WD-40 repeats.
We have identified a novel gene, transducin (beta)-like 1 (TBL1), in the Xp22.3 genomic region, that shows high homology with members of the WD-40-repeat protein family. The gene contains 18 exons spanning approximately 150 kb of the genomic region adjacent to the ocular albinism gene (OA1) on the telomeric side. However, unlike OA1, TBL1 is transcribed from telomere to centromere. Northern analysis indicates that TBL1 is ubiquitously expressed, with two transcripts of approximately 2.1 kb and 6.0 kb. The open reading frame encodes a 526-amino acid protein, which shows the presence of six beta-transducin repeats (WD-40 motif) in the C-terminal domain. The homology with known beta-subunits of G proteins and other WD-40-repeat containing proteins is restricted to the WD-40 motif. Genomic analysis revealed that the gene is either partly or entirely deleted in patients carrying Xp22.3 terminal deletions. The complexity of the contiguous gene-syndrome phenotype shared by these patients depends on the number of known disease genes involved in the deletions. Interestingly, one patient carrying a microinterstitial deletion involving the 3' portion of both TBL1 and OA1 shows the OA1 phenotype associated with X-linked late-onset sensorineural deafness. We postulate an involvement of TBL1 in the pathogenesis of the ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness phenotype. (+info)
(8/695) Successful cotransplantation of intact sheets of fetal retina with retinal pigment epithelium.
PURPOSE: Many retinal diseases, such as macular degeneration, affect both retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors. Therefore, retinal repair may require transplantation of both tissues together as a cograft. METHODS: As recipients of retina-RPE cografts, 7- to 10-week-old albino Royal College of Surgeons rats that lose their photoreceptors because of a pigment epithelium defect were used. Freshly harvested intact sheets of RPE with neural retina from pigmented normal rat fetuses were gel embedded for protection and transplanted into the subretinal space. RESULTS: After 6 to 7 weeks, with the support of the cografted RPE sheet, transplanted photoreceptors developed fully in organized parallel layers in the subretinal space. Immunohistochemistry for rhodopsin, rod alpha-transducin, and S-antigen and peanut agglutinin labeling for cone interphotoreceptor matrix domains suggested that the photoreceptors in the graft were capable of normal function. CONCLUSIONS: Freshly harvested intact sheets of fetal RPE and retina, transplanted together into the subretinal space, can develop a normal morphology. Such transplants have the potential to benefit retinal diseases with dysfunctional RPE and photoreceptors. (+info)