Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures.
We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states. (+info)
Evaluation of the force-frequency relationship as a descriptor of the inotropic state of canine left ventricular myocardium.
The short-term force-frequency characteristics of canine left ventricular myocardium were examined in both isolated and intact preparations by briefly pertubing the frequency of contraction with early extrasystoles. The maximum rate of rise of isometric tension (Fmas) of the isolated trabeculae carneae was potentiated by the introduction of extrasystoles. The ratio of Fmas of potentiated to control beats (force-frequency ratio) was not altered significantly by a change in muscle length. However, exposure of the trabeculae to isoproterenol (10(-7)M) significantly changed the force-frequency ratio obtained in response to a constant frequency perturbation. Similar experiments were performed on chronically instrumented conscious dogs. Left ventricular minor axis diameter was measured with implanted pulse-transit ultrasonic dimension transducers, and intracavitary pressure was measured with a high fidelity micromanometer. Atrial pacing was performed so that the end-diastolic diameters of the beats preceding and following the extrasystole could be made identical. Large increases in the maximum rate of rise of pressure (Pmas) were seen in the contraction after the extrasystole. The ratio of Pmax of the potentiated beat to that of the control beat was not changed by a 9% increase in the end-diastolic diameter, produced by saline infusion. Conversely, isoproterenol significantly altered this relationship in the same manner as in the isolated muscle. Thus, either in vitro or in situ, left ventricular myocardium exhibits large functional changes in response to brief perturbations in rate. The isoproterenol and length data indicate that the force-frequency ratio reflects frequency-dependent changes in the inotropic state, independent of changes in length. (+info)
Investigation of the theory and mechanism of the origin of the second heart sound.
To investigate further the origin of the second heart sound we studied human subjects, dogs, and a model in vitro of the cardiovascular system. Intra-arterial sound, pressure, and, where possible, flow and high speed cine (2,000 frames/sec) were utilized. The closure sound of the semilunar valves was of higher amplitude in be ventricles than in their respective arterial cavities. The direction of inscription of the main components of intra-arterial sound were opposite in direction to the components of intraventricular sound. Notches, representative of pressure increments, were noted on the ventricular pressure tracings and were coincident with the components of sound. The amplitude of the closure sound varied with diastolic pressure, but remained unchanged with augmentation of forward and retrograde aortic flow. Cines showed second sound to begin after complete valvular closure, and average leaflet closure rate was constant regardless of pressure. Hence, the semilunar valves, when closed, act as an elastic membrane and, when set into motion, generate compression and expansion of the blood, producing transient pressure changes indicative of sound. The magnitude of the initial stretch is related to the differential pressure between the arterial and ventricular chambers. Sound transients which follow the major components of the second sound appear to be caused by the continuing stretch and recoil of the leaflets. Clinically unexplained findings such as the reduced or absent second sound in calcific aortic stenosis and its paradoxical presence in congenital aortic stenosis may be explained by those observations. (+info)
Filter-based coded-excitation system for high-speed ultrasonic imaging.
We have recently presented a new algorithm for high-speed parallel processing of ultrasound pulse-echo data for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) imaging. The approach utilizes a discretized linear model of the echo data received from the region of interest (ROI) using a conventional beam former. The transmitter array elements are fed with binary codes designed to produce distinct impulse responses from different directions in ROI. Image reconstruction in ROI is achieved with a regularized pseudoinverse operator derived from the linear receive signal model. The reconstruction operator can be implemented using a transversal filter bank with every filter in the bank designed to extract echoes from a specific direction in the ROI. The number of filters in the bank determines the number of image lines acquired simultaneously. In this paper, we present images of a cyst phantom reconstructed based on our formulation. A number of issues of practical significance in image reconstruction are addressed. Specifically, an augmented model is introduced to account for imperfect blocking of echoes from outside the ROI. We have also introduced a column-weighting algorithm for minimizing the number of filter coefficients. In addition, a detailed illustration of a full image reconstruction using subimage acquisition and compounding is given. Experimental results have shown that the new approach is valid for phased-array pulse-echo imaging of speckle-generating phantoms typically used in characterizing medical imaging systems. Such coded-excitation-based image reconstruction from speckle-generating phantoms, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported previously. (+info)
Use of high-intensity focused ultrasound to control bleeding.
OBJECTIVE: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage from punctures in blood vessels. The objective of the current study was to investigate the capability of HIFU to stop bleeding after a more severe type of vascular injury, namely longitudinal incisions of arteries and veins. METHODS: The superficial femoral arteries, common femoral arteries, carotid arteries, and jugular veins of four anesthetized pigs were exposed surgically. A longitudinal incision, 2 to 8 mm in length, was produced in the vessel. HIFU treatment was applied within 5 seconds of the onset of the bleeding. The HIFU probe consisted of a high-power, 3.5-MHz, piezoelectric transducer with an ellipsoidal focal spot that was 1 mm in cross section and 9 mm in axial dimension. The entire incision area was scanned with the HIFU beam at a rate of 15 to 25 times/second and a linear displacement of 5 to 10 mm. A total of 76 incisions and HIFU treatments were performed. RESULTS: Control of bleeding (major hemosatsis) was achieved in all 76 treatments, with complete hemostasis achieved in 69 treatments (91%). The average treatment times of major and complete hemostasis were 17 and 25 seconds, respectively. After the treatment, 74% of the vessels in which complete hemostasis was achieved were patent with distal blood flow and 26% were occluded. The HIFU-treated vessels showed a consistent coagulation of the adventitia surrounding the vessels, with a remarkably localized injury to the vessel wall. Extensive fibrin deposition at the treatment site was observed. CONCLUSION: HIFU may provide a useful method of achieving hemostasis for arteries and veins in a variety of clinical applications. (+info)
Laparoscopy-assisted intrapelvic sonography with a high-frequency, real-time miniature transducer for assessment of the Fallopian tube: a preliminary report.
Our purpose was to visualize normal and abnormal Fallopian tubes using laparoscopy-assisted intrapelvic sonography with a specially developed 20 MHz flexible catheter-based high-resolution, real-time miniature (2.4 mm outer diameter) ultrasound transducer in infertile women. A total of 21 women (20 infertile, one with unilateral hydrosalpinx, and one tubal pregnancy) were studied with pelvic saline effusion under laparoscopy. Fimbriae were clearly depicted with a cockscomb-like form in 95% of patients. All ampullae were visualized, and mucosal layers were clearly distinguished from muscle layers in 70% of patients. Scanty intratubal effusion was noted in 50% of patients, and tubal spastic findings were found in 10% of patients. In all, 60% of isthmuses were detected, and mucosal layers were distinguished from muscle layers in 30%. In the subject with hydrosalpinx, the tubal wall was thinner, and it was not possible to distinguish between muscle and mucosal layers. In the subject with a tubal pregnancy, the amniotic membrane and decidua were depicted more clearly than by transvaginal sonography. In conclusion, laparoscopy-assisted intrapelvic sonography with a high-frequency, real-time miniature transducer may be useful in the assessment of tubal texture and function in tubal disorders, possibly in infertility practice. (+info)
Metabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running.
Previous studies have suggested that generating vertical force on the ground to support body weight (BWt) is the major determinant of the metabolic cost of running. Because horizontal forces exerted on the ground are often an order of magnitude smaller than vertical forces, some have reasoned that they have negligible cost. Using applied horizontal forces (AHF; negative is impeding, positive is aiding) equal to -6, -3, 0, +3, +6, +9, +12, and +15% of BWt, we estimated the cost of generating horizontal forces while subjects were running at 3.3 m/s. We measured rates of oxygen consumption (VO2) for eight subjects. We then used a force-measuring treadmill to measure ground reaction forces from another eight subjects. With an AHF of -6% BWt, VO2 increased 30% compared with normal running, presumably because of the extra work involved. With an AHF of +15% BWt, the subjects exerted approximately 70% less propulsive impulse and exhibited a 33% reduction in VO2. Our data suggest that generating horizontal propulsive forces constitutes more than one-third of the total metabolic cost of normal running. (+info)
Lumbar intradiscal pressure after posterolateral fusion and pedicle screw fixation.
In vitro biomechanical testing was performed in single-functional spinal units of fresh calf lumbar spines, using pressure needle transducers to investigate the effect of posterolateral fusion (PLF) and pedicle screw constructs (PS) on intradiscal pressure (IDP), in order to elucidate the mechanical factors concerned with residual low back pain after PLF. IDP of 6 calf lumbar spines consisting of L4 and L5 vertebrae and an intervening disc was measured under axial compression, flexion-extension and lateral bending in the intact spine, PS, PLF and the destabilized spine. Relative to the intact spines, the destabilized spines showed increased IDP in all of lordings and moments. IDP under PS and PLF were significantly decreased in axial compression, extension and lateral bending loads (p<0.05). In flexion, IDP under PS and PLF increased linearly proportional to the magnitude of flexion moment and reached as high as IDP of the intact spines. These results demonstrated that despite an increase in the stiffness of motion segments after PLF and PS, significant high disc pressure is still generated in flexion. Flexibility of PS and PLF may cause increased axial load sharing of the disc in flexion and increased IDP. This high IDP may explain patients' persisting pain following PS and PLF. (+info)