Familial anglo-oedema--a particularly severe form. (1/206)

A case of hereditary angio-oedema is described together with the family history and manifestations in the father of the patient. The problems encountered in his management are discussed, including tracheostomy and genetic counselling.  (+info)

Tranexamic acid increases peritoneal ultrafiltration volume in patients on CAPD. (2/206)

OBJECTIVE: The preservation of ultrafiltration (UF) capacity is crucial to maintaining long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the antiplasmin agent tranexamic acid (TNA) increases UF volume in CAPD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients on CAPD, 5 with UF loss and 10 without UF loss, were recruited for the study. The effect of TNA was evaluated with respect to changes in UF volume, peritoneal permeability, peritoneal clearance, bradykinin (BK), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) concentration. SETTING: Dialysis unit of the Saiseikai Central Hospital. RESULTS: In patients with UF loss, 2 weeks of treatment with oral TNA produced a significant increase in UF volume in all subjects (5/5).TNA also produced a significant increase in peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine (Cr). However, the peritoneal equilibration test (PET) revealed that TNA had no effect on dialysate/plasma (D/P) Cr, Kt/V, or the protein catabolic rate (PCR).TNA also had no effect on net glucose reabsorption. In contrast, significant decreases in BK and blood tPA concentrations in response to TNA treatment were noted. BK concentration in drainage fluid was also reduced. In the case of patients without UF loss,TNA produced an increase in UF volume in 70% (7/10). However, no differences were found in blood and drainage BK and tPA concentrations between theTNA treatment and nontreatment periods in these patients. A comparison of basal BK and tPA concentration showed that there were no differences in these parameters between patients with UF loss and those without loss of UF. Furthermore,TNA given intraperitoneally to a patient also produced a marked increase in UF volume. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests thatTNA enhances UF volume in patients both with and without UF loss. SinceTNA did not affect peritoneal permeability and glucose reabsorption, the mechanism by which TNA exerts an enhancing action on UF is largely unknown. We speculate that it may be associated with suppression of the BK and/or tPA system, at least in patients with UF loss.  (+info)

Effect of tranexamic acid and delta-aminovaleric acid on lipoprotein(a) metabolism in transgenic mice. (3/206)

The assembly of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a two-step process which involves the interaction of kringle-4 (K-IV) domains in apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) with Lys groups in apoB-100. Lys analogues such as tranexamic acid (TXA) or delta-aminovaleric acid (delta-AVA) proved to prevent the Lp(a) assembly in vitro. In order to study the in vivo effect of Lys analogues, transgenic apo(a) or Lp(a) mice were treated with TXA or delta-AVA and plasma levels of free and low density lipoprotein bound apo(a) were measured. In parallel experiments, McA-RH 7777 cells, stably transfected with apo(a), were also treated with these substances and apo(a) secretion was followed. Treatment of transgenic mice with Lys analogues caused a doubling of plasma Lp(a) levels, while the ratio of free:apoB-100 bound apo(a) remained unchanged. In transgenic apo(a) mice a 1. 5-fold increase in plasma apo(a) levels was noticed. TXA significantly increased Lp(a) half-life from 6 h to 8 h. Incubation of McA-RH 7777 cells with Lys analogues resulted in an up to 1. 4-fold increase in apo(a) in the medium. The amount of intracellular low molecular weight apo(a) precursor remained unchanged. We hypothesize that Lys analogues increase plasma Lp(a) levels by increasing the dissociation of cell bound apo(a) in combination with reducing Lp(a) catabolism.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of educational package on management of menorrhagia in primary care: the Anglia menorrhagia education study. (4/206)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an educational package could influence the management of menorrhagia, increase the appropriateness of choice of non-hormonal treatment, and reduce referral rates from primary to secondary care. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in East Anglia. SUBJECTS: 100 practices (348 doctors) in primary care were recruited and randomised to intervention (54) and control (46). INTERVENTIONS: An educational package based on principles of "academic detailing" with independent academics was given in small practice based interactive groups with a visual presentation, a printed evidence based summary, a graphic management flow chart, and a follow up meeting at 6 months. OUTCOME MEASURES: All practices recorded consultation details, treatments offered, and outcomes for women with regular heavy menstrual loss (menorrhagia) over 1 year. RESULTS: 1001 consultation data sheets for menorrhagia were returned. There were significantly fewer referrals (20% v 29%; odds ratio 0. 64; 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.99) and a significantly higher use of tranexamic acid (odds ratio 2.38; 1.61 to 3.49) in the intervention group but no overall difference in norethisterone treatment compared with controls. There were more referrals when tranexamic acid was given with norethisterone than when it was given alone. Those practices reporting fewer than 10 cases showed the highest increase in prescribing of tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The educational package positively influenced referral for menorrhagia and treatment with appropriate non-hormonal drugs.  (+info)

Use of tranexamic acid for an effective blood conservation strategy after total knee arthroplasty. (5/206)

We have investigated the effect of treatment with tranexamic acid, an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, on blood loss, blood transfusion requirements and blood coagulation in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 42 patients after total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid 15 mg kg-1 (n = 21) or an equivalent volume of normal saline (n = 21) was given 30 min before surgery and subsequently every 8 h for 3 days. Coagulation and fibrinolysis values, blood loss and blood units administered were measured before administration of tranexamic acid, 8 h after the end of surgery and at 24 and 72 h after operation. Coagulation profile was examined (bleeding time, platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), plasminogen, beta-thromboglobulin and fibrinogen). Fibrinolysis was evaluated by measurement of concentrations of D-dimer and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP). Total blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 678 (SD 352) ml compared with 1419 (607) ml in the control group (P < 0.001), and occurred primarily during the first 24 h after surgery. Thirteen patients received 1-5 u. of packed red blood cells in the control group compared with two patients in the tranexamic acid group, who received 3 u. (P < 0.001). Postoperative packed cell volume values were higher in the tranexamic acid group despite fewer blood transfusions. Postoperative concentrations of plasminogen were decreased significantly in the tranexamic acid group (P < 0.001). Platelet count, PT, aPTT, bleeding time, beta-thromboglobulin, fibrinogen and FDP concentrations did not differ between groups, but D-dimer concentrations were increased in the control group. Thromboembolic complications occurred in two patients in the control group compared with none in the tranexamic acid group.  (+info)

Comparison of blood-conservation strategies in cardiac surgery patients at high risk for bleeding. (6/206)

BACKGROUND: Aprotinin and tranexamic acid are routinely used to reduce bleeding in cardiac surgery. There is a large difference in agent price and perhaps in efficacy. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, partially blinded study, 168 cardiac surgery patients at high risk for bleeding received either a full-dose aprotinin infusion, tranexamic acid (10-mg/kg load, 1-mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) infusion), tranexamic acid with pre-cardiopulmonary bypass autologous whole-blood collection (12.5% blood volume) and reinfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass (combined therapy), or saline infusion (placebo group). RESULTS: There were complete data in 160 patients. The aprotinin (n = 40) and combined therapy (n = 32) groups (data are median [range]) had similar reductions in blood loss in the first 4 h in the intensive care unit (225 [40-761] and 163 [25-760] ml, respectively; P = 0.014), erythrocyte transfusion requirements in the first 24 h in the intensive care unit (0 [0-3] and 0 [0-3] U, respectively; P = 0.004), and durations of time from end of cardiopulmonary bypass to discharge from the operating room (92 [57-215] and 94 [37, 186] min, respectively; P = 0.01) compared with the placebo group (n = 43). Ten patients in the combined therapy group (30.3%) required transfusion of the autologous blood during cardiopulmonary bypass for anemia. CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of tranexamic acid and intraoperative autologous blood collection provided similar reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirements as aprotinin. Cost analyses revealed that combined therapy and tranexamic acid therapy were the least costly therapies.  (+info)

Inhibition of the development of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum by omega-aminocarboxylic acids. (7/206)

Four omega-aminocarboxylic acids - epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA), trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (t-AMCHA), p-aminomethylbenzoic acid (PAMBA) and omega-aminocaprylic acid (OACA) -- prevented fruiting body formation of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. At concentrations of 40 mM, 75 mM, 10 mM and 5 mM, respectively, they allowed aggregation but prevented all further development at 24 degrees C. At lower concentrations, EACA allowed fruiting body formation but with a reduced number of spores per fruiting body. Only t-AMCHA had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of myxamoebae. EACA affected development only if it was present between 8 and 16 h after the cells were deposited on the filters. Its effect was enhanced by high salt concentrations and by higher temperature, and was also dependent on the manner in which the cells were grown. Only strains capable of axenic growth displayed this sensitivity to EACA, although strains carrying only one of the genetic markers for axenic growth (axe A) were partially sensitive.  (+info)

Cetraxate, a mucosal protective agent, combined with omeprazole, amoxycillin, and clarithromycin increases the eradication rate of helicobacter pylori in smokers. (8/206)

BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori eradication was less effective in smokers than in non-smokers. Cetraxate is an anti-ulcer drug that increases gastric mucosal blood flow. AIM: To evaluate the effect of cetraxate combined with new triple therapy for the eradication of H. pylori in smokers. METHODS: This study had a single-centre, double-blind, randomized non-placebo design. A total of 106 consecutive H. pylori-positive smoking patients were randomly allocated to one of two regimens: one group received omeprazole (20 mg), amoxycillin (1500 mg), and clarithromycin (600 mg) for 7 days (OAC, n=55). The other group recieved OAC plus cetraxate (600 mg) for 7 days (OAC + CET, n=51). The success of H. pylori eradication was evaluated by histology and the 13C-urea breath test at 4 weeks after completion of treatment. RESULTS: By intention-to-treat analysis, the H. pylori eradication rate was 55% in the OAC group and 92% in the OAC + CET group (P<0.01). By per protocol analysis, the H. pylori eradication rate was 58% in the OAC group and 94% in the OAC + CET group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Cetraxate combined with new triple therapy increases the eradication of H. pylori in smokers.  (+info)