Airway coccidioidomycosis--report of cases and review.
Infection due to Coccidioides immitis usually begins in the lungs. Despite the initial pulmonary portal of entry, endotracheal and endobronchial coccidioidomycosis has rarely been described. Since the introduction of fiberoptic bronchoscopy and the AIDS epidemic, more C. immitis lesions of the large airways have been noted. We present data on 38 cases of coccidioidomycosis of the airways, including 6 cases detailed from our own experience and 32 from the literature. Direct infection of the airways (28 cases) is a more common mechanism of airways disease than is erosion into the airways from a lymph node (5 cases). Bronchoscopic findings vary and may show mucosal involvement or intrinsic obstruction. Endotracheal and endobronchial disease is not a self-limited disease and requires antifungal therapy. Disseminated disease in these patients is common. Coccidioidomycosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of airway pathology. (+info)
Effect of pulmonary edema on tracheal diameter.
BACKGROUND: Though it is well known that cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema can cause changes in lung mechanics, actual alterations in tracheal diameter have not been described. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of pulmonary edema induced by increased left atrial pressure (cardiogenic) and Perilla ketone (PK; noncardiogenic) on tracheal diameter in chronically instrumented awake sheep. METHODS: We investigated the effects of two mechanistically distinct types of pulmonary edema on tracheal diameter in chronically instrumented awake sheep. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema (analogous to congestive heart failure in humans) was induced by increasing left atrial pressure ( upward arrowP(LA)) by inflating the balloon on a Foley catheter positioned in the mitral valve annulus to cause partial obstruction to flow across the valve (n = 18). Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (increased pulmonary microvascular permeability pulmonary edema analogous to the acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans) was produced by the intravenous administration of PK (n = 11). Lateral chest radiographs (CXRs) were scored by a standardized 5-point scoring system for the severity of pulmonary edema, and tracheal diameter was measured at a fixed location in the carina. Three radiologists, blinded to sheep identification number and experimental protocol, evaluated the radiographs independently at different points in time for edema severity and tracheal diameter. The sheep were sacrificed immediately after the final CXR, and wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D ratio) was determined. RESULTS: Both upward arrowP(LA) and PK were associated with statistically significant tracheal narrowing ( upward arrowP(LA): 20.3 +/- 0.6 to 15.1 +/- 0.9 mm; PK: 20.2 +/- 0.6 to 14.1 +/- 1.4 mm). Tracheal narrowing correlated with the severity of the pulmonary edema determined radiographically ( upward arrowP(LA): r = -0.69, p < 0.01; PK: r = -0.62, p < 0.01) and by W/D ratio ( upward arrowP(LA): r = -0.64, p < 0.05; PK: r = -0.54, p < 0. 05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that tracheal narrowing occurs in sheep models of both cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and that the degree of narrowing correlates with the severity of the edema. (+info)
Laryngeal mask airway and fibre-optic tracheal inspection in thyroid surgery: a method for timely identification of tracheomalacia requiring tracheostomy.
Use of the laryngeal mask airway combined with fibre-optic laryngoscopy in thyroid surgery was first described in 1991. In this unit, it has been successfully used in over 130 cases. The advantages in identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerves using this technique have been demonstrated. However, to date, no report exists of a further advantage, namely the management of tracheomalacia. (+info)
Endobronchial tuberculosis with expectoration of tracheal cartilages.
A case of endotracheal tuberculosis with expectorations of the lateral one-third of the multiple tracheal cartilages is reported. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed caseous materials and loosening of the tracheal cartilages. The patient expectorated cartilaginous material several times before and after fibreoptic bronchoscopy. In spite of the loss of tracheal cartilages, tracheal lumen was maintained with a mild airflow limitation. The remaining two-thirds of the tracheal cartilage rings seemed to be strong enough to support the tracheal lumen opening during the respiratory cycle. Although rare, expectoration of bronchial cartilage can be one of the clinical features of endobronchial tuberculosis. (+info)
Primary amyloidosis of the larynx.
Primary laryngeal amyloidosis is a rare benign disease of unknown aetiology. It can present with dysphonia or stridor. A woman presenting with airway compromise, who required a tracheostomy, is reported. (+info)
Increased lung expansion alters the proportions of type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells in fetal sheep.
Type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) are derived from the same progenitor cell, but little is known about the factors that regulate their differentiation into separate phenotypes. An alteration in lung expansion alters the proportion type II AECs in the fetal lung, indicating that this may be a regulatory factor. Our aim was to quantify the changes in the proportion of type I and type II AECs caused by increased fetal lung expansion and to provide evidence for transdifferentiation of type II into type I cells. Lung tissue samples were collected from ovine fetuses exposed to increased lung expansion induced by 2, 4, or 10 days of tracheal obstruction (TO). The identities and proportions of AEC types were determined with electron microscopy. The proportion of type II cells was reduced from 28.5 +/- 2.2% in control fetuses to 9.4 +/- 2.3% at 2 days of TO and then to 1.9 +/- 0.8% at 10 days. The proportion of type I AECs was not altered at 2 days of TO (63.1 +/- 2.3%) compared with that of control cells (64.8 +/- 0.5%) but was markedly elevated (to 89.4 +/- 0.9%) at 10 days of TO. The proportion of an intermediate AEC type, which displayed characteristics of both type I and type II cells, increased from 5.7 +/- 1.3% in control fetuses to 23.8 +/- 5.1% by 2 days of TO and was similar to control values at 10 days of TO (7.7 +/- 0.9%). Our data show that increases in fetal lung expansion cause time-dependent changes in the proportion of AEC types, including a transient increase in an intermediate cell type. These data provide the first evidence to support the hypothesis that increases in fetal lung expansion induce differentiation of type II into type I AECs via an intermediate cell type. (+info)
Fulminant tracheobronchial and pulmonary aspergillosis complicating imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an apparently immunocompetent woman.
We describe an unusual case of fulminant tracheobronchial and pulmonary aspergillosis presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome. The patient, who was apparently immunocompetent, was admitted with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria but died from aspergillosis. (+info)
Tracheomalacia and breath holding: a case report.
A child with a long standing history of cyanotic breath holding attacks presented with acute respiratory distress. Subsequent investigation established that her clinical condition was caused by tracheomalacia. We hypothesise that tracheomalacia might be an under recognised contributor to cyanotic breath holding attacks, the pathogenesis of which is poorly understood. (+info)