Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. (1/148)

The antigenicity of orally administered glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid was investigated in healthy volunteers. Fourteen volunteers ingested two or three 2-mg doses of toxoid with saline, with the doses spaced at 28-day intervals. Thirteen other volunteers received comparable toxoid doses with NaHCO3 and milk to neutralize gastric acid. Increments in circulating antitoxin levels were used to assay the antigenicity of oral toxoid. Antitoxin was measured by adrenal cell, rabbit skin permeability factor, and passive hemagglutination assays in sera collected on days 0, 28, 35, 56, 63, and 84 after primary immunization. Adrenal cell and rabbit skin assays exhibited identical sensitivity in detecting antitoxin rises in the 27 vaccinees (19/27) and were significantly more sensitive than passive hemagglutination (11/27) (P less than 0.03). Volunteers who ingested toxoid with NaHCO3 and milk had a higher rate of seroconversion (77%) than those who received toxoid with saline (64%); they also had earlier rises in antitoxin titer and consistently higher geometric mean titers on all days tested. These studies demonstrate that purified cholera toxoid is antigenic in humans after oral administration. The possible role of oral toxoid in enhancing the protective effect of killed whole-cell vaccines can now be investigated.  (+info)

Suppressive versus stimulatory effects of allergen/cholera toxoid (CTB) conjugates depending on the nature of the allergen in a murine model of type I allergy. (2/148)

Recent reports have demonstrated that feeding small amounts of antigen conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) suppress immune responses in experimental models of certain Th1-based autoimmune diseases. We have established a model of aerosol sensitization leading to Th2-mediated allergic immune responses in BALB/c mice. In the present study two different antigens, the dietary antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the inhalant allergen Bet v 1 (the major birch pollen allergen), chemically coupled to recombinant CTB were tested for their potential to influence Th2-like immune responses. Intranasal administration of OVA-CTB prior to sensitization with OVA led to a significant decrease of antigen-specific IgE antibody levels, but a marked increase of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies as compared to non-pretreated, sensitized animals. Antigen-specific lympho-proliferative responses in vitro were reduced by 65% in the pretreated group; IL-5 and IL-4, but not IFN-gamma, production were markedly decreased in responder cells of lungs and spleens of nasally pretreated mice. In contrast, mucosal administration of rBet v 1-CTB conjugates prior to sensitization led to an up-regulation of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a, increased in vitro lympho-proliferative responses as well as augmented production of IL-5, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Intranasal administration prior to sensitization of unconjugated allergens showed also contrasting effects: OVA could not significantly influence antigen-specific antibody or cytokine production, whereas intranasal pretreatment with unconjugated Bet v 1 suppressed allergen-specific immune responses in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrated that the two antigens--in conjugated as in unconjugated form--had different effects on the Th2 immune responses. We therefore conclude that the tolerogenic or immunogenic properties of CTB--and probably also other antigen-delivery systems--strongly depend on the nature of the coupled antigen-allergen.  (+info)

Protective effects of pertussis immunoglobulin (P-IGIV) in the aerosol challenge model. (3/148)

Pertussis in infants is often severe, resulting in prolonged hospitalization. Treatment is limited to supportive care. Antibiotics do not significantly alter the course of the disease unless administered during the catarrhal phase. Therapies directed at pertussis toxin, a major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, may be beneficial. This study uses the aerosol challenge model to further examine the protective effects of P-IGIV, a new intravenous immunoglobulin product, which has high levels of pertussis toxin antibodies. P-IGIV was prepared as a 4% immunoglobulin G (IgG) solution from the pooled donor plasma from donors immunized with inactivated pertussis toxoid. The IgG pertussis toxin antibody concentration in P-IGIV is >7-fold higher than conventional intravenous immunoglobulin products. In the aerosol challenge model, P-IGIV-treated mice exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in mortality when monitored for 28 days postchallenge. P-IGIV in doses of 2,800, 1,400, and 350 mg/kg significantly reduced mortality compared to saline (P < 0.01)- and human IGIV (P < 0.01)-treated controls. The 50% protective dose of pertussis toxin antibodies in P-IGIV was 147 microg/ml. Recovery of weight gain and normalization of leukocyte counts occurred in all P-IGIV-treated groups but did not exhibit dose-dependent characteristics. Even after 7 days of infection, P-IGIV reversed the effects of pertussis in mice. This study provides further evidence that pertussis toxin antibodies not only play a role in passive protection but can also reverse symptoms of established disease in mice. We feel that P-IGIV deserves further evaluation in children hospitalized with severe pertussis.  (+info)

Intranasal administration of a Schistosoma mansoni glutathione S-transferase-cholera toxoid conjugate vaccine evokes antiparasitic and antipathological immunity in mice. (4/148)

Mucosal administration of Ags linked to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) can induce both strong mucosal secretory IgA immune responses and peripheral T cell hyporeactivity. In this study, intranasal (i.n. ) administration of CTB-conjugated Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa GST (CTB-Sm28GST) was found to protect infected animals from schistosomiasis, especially from immunopathological complications associated with chronic inflammation. Worm burden and liver egg counts were reduced in infected animals treated with the CTB-Sm28GST conjugate as compared with mice infected only, or with mice treated with a control (CTB-OVA) conjugate. However, a more striking and consistent effect was that granuloma formations in liver and lungs of mice treated with CTB-Sm28GST were markedly suppressed. Such treatment was associated with reduced systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity and lymphocyte proliferative responses to Sm28GST. Production of IFN-gamma, IL-3, and IL-5 by liver cells was also markedly reduced after i.n. treatment of CTB-Sm28GST, whereas IL-4 production was not impaired. Intranasal treatment of infected mice with CTB-Sm28GST increased IgG1-, IgG2a-, IgA-, and IgE-Ab-forming cell responses in liver in comparison with treatment with CTB-OVA, or free Sm28GST. Most importantly, mucosal treatment with CTB-Sm28GST significantly reduced animal mortality when administered to chronically infected mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to design a therapeutic vaccine against schistosomiasis that both limits infection and suppresses parasite-induced pathology.  (+info)

A randomized clinical trial of acellular pertussis vaccines in healthy adults: dose-response comparisons of 5 vaccines and implications for booster immunization. (5/148)

The safety and immunogenicity of 5 acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs) were compared in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. A total of 481 healthy adults were given a single intramuscular booster dose of ACV or placebo. Three different dose levels were tested for 4 ACVs: full strength (the dose level proposed for infant immunization), one-third strength, and one-tenth strength. For 1 multicomponent vaccine, only the pertussis toxoid dose level varied. Minor injection site reactions were common and similar in frequency among vaccinated groups. Late-onset injection site reactions were seen in all ACV groups. Dose-related increases in mean antibody titers against vaccine antigens were seen after immunization with all ACVs. Antibody responses against antigens not known to be present in the vaccines were detected after immunization with 4/5 ACVs. Antibody levels fell significantly during the year after immunization. These data support evaluation of ACVs for broader use among adolescents and adults.  (+info)

Suppressive versus stimulatory effects of allergen/cholera toxoid (CTB) conjugates depending on the nature of the allergen in a murine model of type I allergy. (6/148)

Recent reports have demonstrated that feeding small amounts of antigen conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) suppress immune responses in experimental models of certain T(h)1-based autoimmune diseases. We have established a model of aerosol sensitization leading to T(h)2-mediated allergic immune responses in BALB/c mice. In the present study two different antigens, the dietary antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the inhalant allergen Bet v 1 (the major birch pollen allergen), chemically coupled to recombinant CTB were tested for their potential to influence T(h)2-like immune responses. Intranasal administration of OVA-CTB prior to sensitization with OVA led to a significant decrease of antigen-specific IgE antibody levels, but a marked increase of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies as compared to non-pretreated, sensitized animals. Antigen-specific lympho-proliferative responses in vitro were reduced by 65% in the pretreated group; IL-5 and IL-4 production were decreased in responder cells of lungs and spleens of nasally pretreated mice. In contrast, mucosal administration of rBet v 1-CTB conjugates prior to sensitization led to an up-regulation of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a, increased in vitro lympho-proliferative responses as well as augmented production of IL-5, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Intranasal administration prior to sensitization of unconjugated allergens showed also contrasting effects: OVA could not significantly influence antigen-specific antibody or cytokine production, whereas intranasal pretreatment with unconjugated Bet v 1 suppressed allergen-specific immune responses in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrated that the two antigens-in conjugated as in unconjugated form-had different effects on the T(h)2 immune responses. We therefore conclude that the tolerogenic or immunogenic properties of CTB-and probably also other antigen-delivery systems-strongly depend on the nature of the coupled antigen-allergen.  (+info)

Development of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C vaccine toxoids that are protective in the rabbit model of toxic shock syndrome. (7/148)

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SPE C) is a superantigen produced by many strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that (along with streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A) is highly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and other invasive streptococcal diseases. Based on the three-dimensional structure of SPE C, solvent-exposed residues predicted to be important for binding to the TCR or the MHC class II molecule, or important for dimerization, were generated. Based on decreased mitogenic activity of various single-site mutants, the double-site mutant Y15A/N38D and the triple-site mutant Y15A/H35A/N38D were constructed and analyzed for superantigenicity, toxicity (lethality), immunogenicity, and the ability to protect against wild-type SPE C-induced STSS. The Y15A/N38D and Y15A/H35A/N38D mutants were nonmitogenic for rabbit splenocytes and human PBMCs and nonlethal in two rabbit models of STSS, yet both mutants were highly immunogenic. Animals vaccinated with the Y15A/N38D or Y15A/H35A/N38D toxoids were protected from challenge with wild-type SPE C. Collectively, these data indicate that the Y15A/N38D and Y15A/H35A/N38D mutants may be useful as toxoid vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Toxoids of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A are protective in rabbit models of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. (8/148)

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) are superantigens that have been implicated in causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Most notably, SPE serotype A is made by nearly all M-protein serotype 1 and 3 streptococci, the M types most associated with the illness (these strains contain one or more other SPEs, and those proteins are likely also to contribute to disease). We have prepared double-, triple-, and hexa-amino-acid mutants of SPE A by PCR and other mutagenesis procedures. The sites chosen for mutation were solvent-exposed residues thought to be important for T-cell receptor (TCR) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II interaction. These mutants were nonsuperantigenic for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and rabbit and mouse splenocytes and were nonlethal in two rabbit models of STSS. In addition, these mutants stimulated protective antibody responses. Interestingly, mutants that altered toxin binding to MHC class II were more immunogenic than mutants altering TCR binding. Collectively, these studies indicate that multiple-site mutants of SPE A are toxoids that may have use in protecting against the toxin's effects in STSS.  (+info)