(1/174) Aetiological study of the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands.

AIM: To investigate whether presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and whether other risk factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. METHODS: 23 patients were clinically diagnosed as having presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome based on the following criteria: peripapillary atrophy, punched out lesions, a macular disciform lesion or scar in one eye without vitritis. As controls, 66 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were used. Serum samples from both patients and controls were tested for the presence of antibodies against H capsulatum, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis et cati, Ascaris sp, and for the presence of antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans. Serum samples were also tested for the presence of autoantibodies against retinal or choroidal proteins. To investigate other risk factors, patients and controls were asked to fill in a health and travel related questionnaire. Ten patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were used as a disease control group. RESULTS: None of the patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome or controls had circulating antibodies directed against H capsulatum. No risk factors could be identified and no indications for autoimmunity and no evidence for the role of the other infectious agents could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In a Dutch group of patients fulfilling the criteria of a disease currently named presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, no risk factors or relation with the fungus H capsulatum could be detected.  (+info)

(2/174) New animal model for human ocular toxocariasis: ophthalmoscopic observation.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although human ocular toxocariasis causes severe vision defect, little is known about its aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. To develop a new animal model for human ocular toxocariasis, ophthalmological findings of fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, and BALB/c mice were investigated following infection with Toxocara canis. METHODS: Using an ophthalmoscope, which was specifically developed to observe the fundi of small animals, ocular changes of fundi of 20 gerbils and 11 mice were monitored after oral infection with embryonated eggs of T canis. RESULTS: Vitreous, choroidal, and retinal haemorrhages were consistently observed in Mongolian gerbils, but rarely in mice. Severe exudative lesions and vasculitis were often present in gerbils but not in mice. Migrating larvae were also frequently observed in gerbils. CONCLUSION: Mongolian gerbils are more appropriate animal model for human ocular toxocariasis than previously used experimental animal such as mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and monkeys because of its high susceptibility of ocular infection.  (+info)

(3/174) Frequency of human toxocariasis in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was used to examine sera of 104 children and adults in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria for anti-toxocaral antibodies, out of which 31 (29.8%) were reactive. The seropositive rates were 30.4% for adults, 29.6% for children, 34% for females and 25.9% for males. However, the differences were not significant by age and sex. A highly significant association (p < 0.001) was observed between seropositivity and geography but none between seropositivity and dog ownership (p > 0.05).  (+info)

(4/174) Development of a highly specific recombinant Toxocara canis second-stage larva excretory-secretory antigen for immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

The specificity of the recombinant Toxocara canis antigen developed for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis was compared with that of the excretory-secretory antigen from T. canis second-stage larvae (TES) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 153 human serum samples from patients infected with 20 different helminths, including 11 cases of toxocariasis, were examined. No false-negative reactions were observed for the toxocariasis cases. When the TES was used at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.125 microg/ml, cross-reactions were observed in 79 (55.6%) and 61 (43.0%) of 142 cases, respectively. In contrast, when the recombinant antigen was tested at a concentration of 0.5 microg/ml, cross-reactions were observed in 19 (13.4%) of 142 cases. At a concentration of 0.125 microg/ml, however, the cross-reaction rate decreased sharply to only 2.1%, corresponding to 3 of 142 cases. The cross-reactions occurred with one case each of gnathostomiasis, paragonimiasis with Paragonimus miyazakii, and spirometriasis, in which high antibody titers were detected. In addition, the recombinant antigen showed negative reactions with serum samples from patients infected with Ascaris and hookworms, which are the most common parasites in the world. These findings are also supported by experiments with animals infected with Ascaris and hookworm. From these results, the recombinant antigen is highly specific for toxocariasis and may provide more reliable diagnostic results than other methods.  (+info)

(5/174) A case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman.

This is a case of presumed ocular toxocariasis in a 28-year old woman complaining of a sudden onset of nasal side field defect of the right eye. The patient had been suffering from uveitis for ten months. Fundoscopic examination of the right eye showed a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Furthermore, a retinochoroidal granulomatous lesion was observed nearby the tear site. Scleral buckling, cryotherapy, and gas injection(SF6, pure gas, 0.7 cc) were conducted. Mebendazole was prescribed for one month at 25 mg/kg per body weight daily. Even though the interventions resulted in the recovery of the field defect, anti-Toxocara IgG and IgE titer levels did not decrease when checked three months after the treatment ended. This is the first confirmed serological ocular toxocariasis case in Korea. Uveitis may be a clinical presentation prior to retinal detachment of a person with toxocariasis.  (+info)

(6/174) Human toxocarosis. Its seroprevalence in the city of La Plata.

Toxocara canis is very common in dogs throughout the world. It is the primary cause of visceral larva migrans (VLM) in humans. Soil contaminated with T. canis embryonated eggs is the main source of infection of man. Our objective was to describe Toxocara seroprevalence in humans in the city of La Plata associated with some determinants such asage, presence or absence of clinical manifestations and risk factors. Blood samples were collected at random from 156 patients of different sex and age, with and without clinical symptoms compatible with the disease. The diagnostic technique ELISA test was performed with the Bordier Affinity Products Commercial Kit, using excretory-secretory Toxocara antigen with a sensitivity higher than 90%. The values were positive in 39% of the studied population. In the analysis according to age, the younger group presented significant differences with respect to the older one (Chi-square p<0.05). Positive patients presented clinical symptoms compatible with the disease (84%), and 41% presented some risk factor. The level of positivity obtained indicates a certain risk of being infects mainly in patients younger than 15 years old. The authors agree that an early identification and treatment of VLM may save a life.  (+info)

(7/174) Toxocara seroprevalence in children from a subtropical city in Argentina.

Most studies from Argentina have focused on toxocariasis as an environmental problem of big cities, and there are no available data about children infection from small or middle-sized cities. In order to assess the prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in infantile population, 206 children from Resistencia, of both sexes, aged 1-14 years old were studied by Elisa testing with E/S T. canis L2 antigens. Hematological parameters and immunoglobulin levels were determined; five days' stool samples were studied and epidemiological data were obtained by means of a questionnaire to parents. Results showed that 73% of the children had one or more dogs living at home, 57% reported geophagia and 37.9% were positive for Toxocara serology, but there was no significant difference in prevalence neither for boys and girls, nor concerning age. An increased risk of infection was observed in age groups 5-6 and 7-8 for boys, and in age groups 3-4 and 5-6 for girls.  (+info)

(8/174) Observations on topical ivermectin in the treatment of otoacariosis, cheyletiellosis, and toxocariosis in cats.

The purpose of this study was to observe the efficacy of a topical pour-on formulation of ivermectin in the treatment of otoacariosis, cheyletiellosis, and toxocariosis in cats. Forty-five cats were treated. All cats received 2 to 4 topical applications of ivermectin on the skin between the shoulder blades in a narrow strip, 14 days apart. This practical treatment was effective in 96% (23/24) of cases of feline otoacariosis and in 100% (20/20) of cats with toxocariosis. All cats with cheyletiellosis (16/16) received 4 treatments and had resolution of clinical signs, but one Cheyletiella egg could still be found 45 days after the last treatment. The viability of this egg could not be evaluated, but the cats were still free of clinical signs on follow-up 6 months later. The treatment was well tolerated in all the animals. A few cats developed a transient small alopecic area and mild scaling at the site of application of the drug.  (+info)