Long-term pulmonary responses of three laboratory rodent species to subchronic inhalation of pigmentary titanium dioxide particles. (1/139)

Female mice, rats, and hamsters were exposed to 10, 50, or 250 mg/m(3) pigmentary titanium dioxide (p-TiO(2)) particles for 6 h per day and 5 days per week for 13 weeks with recovery groups held for an additional 4, 13, 26, or 52 weeks postexposure (46 weeks for the p-TiO(2)-exposed hamsters). At each time point p-TiO(2) burdens in the lung and lymph nodes and selected lung responses were examined. The responses studied were chosen to assess a variety of pulmonary parameters, including inflammation, cytotoxicity, lung cell proliferation, and histopathologic alterations. Burdens of p-TiO(2) in the lungs and in the lung-associated lymph nodes increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Retained lung burdens following exposure were greatest in mice. Rats and hamsters had similar lung burdens immediately postexposure when assessed as milligrams of p-TiO(2) per gram of dried lung. Particle retention data suggested that pulmonary overload was achieved in both rats and mice at the exposure levels of 50 and 250 mg/m(3). Under the conditions of the present study, hamsters were better able to clear p-TiO(2) particles than were similarly exposed mice and rats. Pulmonary histopathology revealed both species and concentration-dependent differences in p-TiO(2) particle retention patterns. Inflammation was noted in all three species at 50 and 250 mg/m(3), as evidenced by increases in macrophage and neutrophil numbers and in soluble indices of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; rats > mice, hamsters). In mice and rats, the BALF inflammatory responses remained elevated relative to controls throughout the entire postexposure recovery period in the most highly exposed animals. In comparison, inflammation in hamsters eventually disappeared, even at the highest exposure dose, due to the more rapid clearance of particles from the lung. Pulmonary lesions were most severe in rats, where progressive epithelial- and fibroproliferative changes were observed in the 250 mg/m(3) group. These epithelial proliferative changes were also manifested in rats as an increase in alveolar epithelial cell labeling in cell proliferation studies. Associated with these foci of epithelial proliferation were interstitial particle accumulation and alveolar septal fibrosis. In summary, there were significant species differences in pulmonary responses to inhaled p-TiO(2) particles. Under conditions in which the lung p-TiO(2) burdens were similar and likely to induce pulmonary overload, rats developed a more severe and persistent pulmonary inflammatory response than either mice or hamsters. Rats also were unique in the development of progressive fibroproliferative lesions and alveolar epithelial metaplasia in response to 90 days of exposure to a high concentration of p-TiO(2) particles.  (+info)

Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and p-cresidine in the p53 heterozygous mouse model. (2/139)

The carcinogenic potential of chlorpromazine hydrochloride, a psychotropic agent, was assessed in the p53 heterozygous mouse assay. In a 4-week dose range finding study in p53 wild-type mice, doses of 20,40, 60, and 80 mg/kg were poorly tolerated because of mortality secondary to the severe sedative and hypotensive effects of chlorpromazine. Based on 40% mortality at a dose of 20 mg/kg in the dose-range finding study, a high dose of 10 mg/kg was chosen for the 26-week carcinogenicity study in p53 heterozygous mice. Doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg chlorpromazine hydrochloride were well tolerated in the 26-week study. The administration of chlorpromazine hydrochloride at dose levels up to and including 10 mg/kg to p53 heterozygous and wild-type mice did not result in a dose-related increase in tumor incidence or in the type of tumors seen in comparison to controls. Findings related to the administration of chlorpromazine in the 26-week study were limited to minimal uterine and ovarian atrophy in p53 wild-type mice dosed with 10 mg/kg chlorpromazine hydrochloride. However, p53 heterozygous mice administered 400 mg/kg p-cresidine, a genotoxic carcinogen commonly used as a positive control for this model, developed urinary bladder tumors. Administration of p-cresidine also resulted in a regenerative anemia, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, renal findings, and ovarian and uterine atrophy. This study demonstrated that chlorpromazine hydrochloride, at the doses tolerated, was not carcinogenic in the p53 heterozygous mouse assay.  (+info)

Subchronic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate mechanisms of MTBE-induced Leydig cell cancer. (3/139)

High MTBE exposures caused rat Leydig cell (LC) tumors in inhalation and gavage cancer bioassays. Investigating early endocrine changes consistent with known mechanisms of LC carcinogenesis, we gavaged adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with MTBE in five different subchronic experiments and studied testosterone biosynthesis in isolated rat LCs exposed in vitro to MTBE or a major metabolite, t-butanol. In vitro LC testosterone production declined 29-50% following 3-h exposures to 50-100 mM MTBE or t-butanol. Within hours after gavaging with 1,000 or 1,500 mg/kg MTBE, circulating testosterone declined to 38-49% of control (p < 0.05). If sampled longer after treatment or with lower doses, testosterone reductions were less dramatic or nondetectable even after 28 days of treatment. Accessory organ:brain weight ratios decreased only slightly although showing dose response with 40-800 mg/kg/day after 28 days. High MTBE doses caused slight liver weight and total P450 increases. Reduced aromatase activity in liver and testis microsomes predicted low serum estradiol, but estradiol was 19% higher than corn oil controls concurrent with testosterone reduction 1 h after the last of 14 daily 1,200-mg/kg doses (p < 0.05). Pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin measured in both intact and orchiectomized rats, with testosterone implants in some castrated rats providing stable levels of testosterone, revealed no consistent direct effect on hypothalamic-pituitary function. MTBE-treated rat livers showed no evidence of peroxisome proliferation, a characteristic of some LC carcinogens. Considering recognized mechanisms of Leydig cell cancer in rats, collectively these results suggested reduced LC steroidogenesis enzyme activity as a possible mechanism underlying MTBE LC carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Effect of diet and housing on growth, body weight, survival and tumor incidences of B6C3F1 mice in chronic studies. (4/139)

Diet is one of the most important environmental factors influencing growth, body weight, survival, and age-related diseases of rodents in chronic studies. NIH-07 open formula diet was the selected diet for the NTP studies from 1980 to 1994. A new diet designated as NTP-2000 diet is the current diet for mice in the NTP studies beginning in 1994. This report is a summary of results of untreated control groups of B6C3F1 mice fed NTP-2000 or NIH-07 diet from several retrospective 2-year dosed-feed and inhalation studies for differences in growth, body weight, survival, and tumor incidences. The dosed-feed studies were conducted in 3 different facilities located in the United States, and all the inhalation studies were conducted in 1 facility. During dosed-feed studies, male and female mice housed in polycarbonate cages and fed the NTP-2000 diet had lower maximum body weights than those fed NIH-07 diet. However, during inhalation studies, mice housed in wire mesh cages and fed the NTP-2000 diet had higher maximum body weights than the mice fed NIH-07 diet. Survival was higher in groups fed NTP-2000 diet irrespective of sex, housing conditions, or body weight compared to the corresponding groups fed NIH-07 diet. Survival was higher in mice housed in polycarbonate cages irrespective of diet and sex compared to the respective sex and diet groups housed in wire mesh cages. During inhalation studies, survival of male and female mice fed NTP-2000 diet was higher than that of the groups fed NIH-07 diet, although the body weights of NTP-2000 diet groups were higher than those of the groups fed NIH-07 diet. When the NTP-2000 diet was used, male and female mice in dosed-feed studies and male mice in inhalation studies had markedly lower incidences of liver tumors than the corresponding groups fed NIH-07 diet. Significant decreases in the incidences of lung tumors were observed only in the male groups fed NTP-2000 diet during dosed-feed studies. These results suggest that body weight may not be the major contributing factor for mortality and liver tumors and that an interaction between diet and housing conditions appears to affect the growth, survival and tumor incidences of B6C3F1 mice.  (+info)

Recommended tissue list for histopathologic examination in repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies: a proposal of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP). (5/139)

The Executive Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) appointed an ad hoc task force to devise and recommend a standard list of tissues to be evaluated histopathologically in repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies that are used to support the registration of new pharmaceutical products. The recommended tissue list is intended to be a minimum core list that can be used for all types of repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies, regardless of route of administration, species or strain of mammalian laboratory animal, duration, or class of drug to be tested. The resulting recommendations of the task force, presented here, were subsequently reviewed by the STP membership and endorsed by the STP Executive Committee.  (+info)

Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rats: effects on lymphocytes and the inflammatory response in a chronic intermittent dosing study. (6/139)

We investigated the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on isolated splenic lymphocytes and the histo-morphologic changes in the spleens and liver of Fisher-344 male rats. Weaned animals were fed chow diets that contained 0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.4, or 1.6 ppm AFB1, using an intermittent dosing regimen (4 weeks on and 4 weeks off AFB1), for 40 weeks. An additional group of animals was fed the 1.6 ppm AFB1 diet continuously. The intermittent dosing regimen was designed to evaluate effects of cumulative dose and exposure for risk assessment comparisons. The percentages of T and B cells were affected as shown by flow cytometric analysis after the dosing cycles. The observed changes appeared to reverse or compensate to some extent after the off cycles. Lymphocytes were stimulated in culture for analysis of the production of IL-2, IL-1, and IL-6. Significantly increased production of IL-1 and IL-6 was seen in the second dosing cycle (12 weeks) and the second "off" cycle (16 weeks) at the higher doses. Inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the liver after eight weeks of continuous and intermittent dosing and were increased in size and number at 12 weeks in both 1.6 ppm dose groups correlating with the peak production of Il-1 and IL-6. We concluded that AFB1 effects on the immune system can be either stimulatory or suppressive dependent on a critical exposure window of dose and time. Immune cells in spleen such as T-lymphocytes and macrophages, both important mediators of inflammatory responses to tissue damage, were affected differently in the continuous and intermittent exposures to AFB1.  (+info)

Acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure on skeletal muscle c-myc, p53, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression. (7/139)

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common feature in alcoholism that affects up to two-thirds of alcohol misusers, and women appear to be particularly susceptible. There is also some evidence to suggest that malnutrition exacerbates the effects of alcohol on muscle. However, the mechanisms responsible for the myopathy remain elusive, and some studies suggest that acetaldehyde, rather than alcohol, is the principal pathogenic perturbant. Previous reports on rats dosed acutely with ethanol (<24 h) have suggested that increased proto-oncogene expression (i.e., c-myc) may be a causative process, possibly via activating preapoptotic or transcriptional pathways. We hypothesized that 1) increases in c-myc mRNA levels also occur in muscle exposed chronically to alcohol, 2) muscle of female rats is more sensitive than that from male rats, 3) raising acetaldehyde will also increase c-myc, 4) prior starvation will cause further increases in c-myc mRNA expression in response to ethanol, and 5) other genes involved in apoptosis (i.e., p53 and Bcl-2) would also be affected by alcohol. To test this, we measured c-myc mRNA levels in skeletal muscle of rats dosed either chronically (6-7 wk; ethanol as 35% of total dietary energy) or acutely (2.5 h; ethanol as 75 mmol/kg body wt ip) with ethanol. All experiments were carried out in male Wistar rats (approximately 0.1-0.15 kg body wt) except the study that examined gender susceptibility in male and female rats. At the end of the studies, rats were killed, and c-myc, p53, and Bcl-2 mRNA was analyzed in skeletal muscle by RT-PCR with an endogenous internal standard, GAPDH. The results showed that 1) in male rats fed ethanol chronically, there were no increases in c-myc mRNA; 2) increases, however, occurred in c-myc mRNA in muscle from female rats fed ethanol chronically; 3) raising endogenous acetaldehyde with cyanamide increased c-myc mRNA in acute studies; 4) starvation per se increased c-myc mRNA levels and at 1 day potentiated the acute effects of ethanol, indicative of a sensitization response; 5) the only effect seen with p53 mRNA levels was a decrease in muscle of rats starved for 1 day compared with fed rats, and there was no statistically significant effect on Bcl-2 mRNA in any of the experimental conditions. The increases in c-myc may well represent a preapoptotic effect, or even a nonspecific cellular stress response to alcohol and/or acetaldehyde. These data are important in our understanding of a common muscle pathology induced by alcohol.  (+info)

Effect of diet and animal care/housing protocols on body weight, survival, tumor incidences, and nephropathy severity of F344 rats in chronic studies. (8/139)

Diet is an important environmental factor affecting body weight, survival, and age-related diseases of rodents. The NIH-07 open formula diet was the diet used in the National Toxicology Program's (NTPs) rodent carcinogenicity studies from 1980 to 1994. In 1994 the NTP began using a new diet designated the NTP-2000 diet. This paper compares body weight, survival, tumor incidence, and nephropathy severity in untreated control groups of Fischer 344 (F344) rats fed the NTP-2000 or NIH-07 diets, using data from 22 separate 2-year feed and inhalation studies. The feed studies were conducted in 3 different facilities, and all the inhalation studies were conducted in a single facility. During feed studies, rats were group housed in polycarbonate cages and fed diets in powder (mash) form, while in inhalation studies, rats were housed individually in wire mesh cages, and fed diets in pelleted form. Survival was significantly (p<0.05) higher in groups fed NTP-2000 diet compared to the corresponding groups fed NIH-07 diet, irrespective of sex or housing conditions. Use of the NTP-2000 diet was also associated with a decreased incidence of pituitary gland tumors in both sexes and decreased incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma and preputial gland tumors in males. The incidence and severity of nephropathy was also decreased in animals receiving the NTP-2000 diet, especially males. The decreased nephropathy severity and the decreased incidence of pituitary gland tumors are likely the major factors contributing to the improved survival of rats receiving the NTP-2000 diet relative to those given the NIH-07 diet. These data also support earlier findings that decreased incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma are associated with reduced nephropathy severity in male F344 rats. Throughout the two-year study female rats receiving the NTP-2000 diet were significantly (p<0.05) lighter than those receiving the NIH-07 diet. However, it is uncertain if this difference can be attributed to the NTP-2000 diet, since implementation of this diet by the NTP approximately coincided with changes in the F344 rat production colony that resulted in somewhat lighter animals being provided to the NTP. Controls from inhalation studies and feed studies differed significantly (p<0.01) in the incidence of a variety of tumors, irrespective of diet. This suggests that differences in animal care and housing protocols may impact tumor incidence in F344 rats, most notably pituitary gland and testis tumors.  (+info)