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(1/22) A physiological model for tert-amyl methyl ether and tert-amyl alcohol: hypothesis testing of model structures.

The oxygenate tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) is a gasoline fuel additive used to reduce carbon monoxide in automobile emissions. To evaluate the relative health risk of TAME as a gasoline additive, information is needed on its pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The objective of this study was to use a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the disposition of TAME and its major metabolite, tert-amyl alcohol (TAA), in male Fischer-344 rats. The model compartments for TAME and TAA were flow-limited. The TAME physiological model had 6 compartments: lung, liver, rapidly perfused tissues, slowly perfused tissues, fat, and kidney. The TAA model had 3 compartments: lung, liver, and total-body water. The 2 models were linked through metabolism of TAME to TAA in the liver. Model simulations were compared with data on blood concentrations of TAME and TAA taken from male Fischer-344 rats during and after a 6-hour inhalation exposure to 2500, 500, or 100 ppm TAME. The PBPK model predicted TAME pharmacokinetics when 2 saturable pathways for TAME oxidation were included. The TAA model, which included pathways for oxidation and glucuronide conjugation of TAA, underpredicted the experimental data collected at later times postexposure. To account for biological processes occurring during this time, three hypotheses were developed: nonspecific binding of TAA, diffusion-limited transport of TAA, and enterohepatic circulation of TAA glucuronide. These hypotheses were tested using three different model structures. Visual inspection and statistical evaluation involving maximum likelihood techniques indicated that the model incorporating nonspecific binding of TAA provided the best fit to the data. A correct model structure, based upon experimental data, statistical analyses, and biological interpretation, will allow a more accurate extrapolation to humans and, consequently, a greater understanding of human risk from exposure to TAME.  (+info)

(2/22) The relationship between kallikrein and water excretion and the conditional relationship between kallikrein and sodium excretion.

1. The renal kallikrein-kinin system has previously been linked with renal control of sodium and water excretion. The present investigations were carried out to examine more closely these relationships. 2. In physiological studies with rabbits, urinary kallikrein was measured by a modification of the [3-H]TAME method. 3. With rabbits on free sodium and water intake, urinary kallikrein was positively correlated with both sodium and water excretion. Kallikrein excretion was also negatively correlated with urinary osmolality. 4. In rabbits on chronic high and low sodium diets, urinary kallikrein was positively correlated with urinary volume but not with sodium excretion. 5. In rabbits held to a constant fluid intake but with sodium intake changed, urinary kallikrein was not correlated with sodium excretion. 6. These results indicate that the positive correlation of kallikrein excretion with sodium excretion under conditions of free sodium and water intake may be only secondary to the positive relationship of kallikrein excretion with urinary volume. 7. The results of the present investigations do not support the hypothesis that the renal kallikrein-kinin system is necessarily involved in renal control of sodium excretion under normal conditions but it is where a change in sodium intake leads to a change in fluid intake and consequently of urinary volume. 8. In the above experiments, urinary kallikrein was always positively correlated with urinary volume and negatively correlated with urinary osmolality. This may indicate a functional relationship between renal kallikrein and water excretion.  (+info)

(3/22) Fibrinolysis in normal plasma and blood: evidence for significant mechanisms independent of the plasminogen-plasmin system.

Fibrinolytic activity of normal plasma and blood has been measured by 125l-fibrin solid phase assay. Activity of plasma is not affected by removal of plasminogenplasmin by affinity chromatography. Activities of euglobulin and pseudoglobulin fractions are approximately equal. epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) (10 mM), tranexamic acid (10 mM), diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP, 50 mM), and soybean and lima bean trypsin inhibitors (100 mug/ml) do not inhibit plasma activity at concentrations that inhibit pure plasmin and urokinase-activated plasma. Activity is not affected by glass contact and is not inhibited by inhibitors of contact or enzymatic activation of Hageman factor (hexadimethrine bromide, 100 mug/ml; cytochrome C, 250 mug/ml; spermidine, 2 mM; phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, 1 mM). It is inhibited partially (30%-40%) by heating (56 degrees C, 30 min) and by zymosan (2.5 mg/ml; 40%-90% inhibition), and is increased by hydrazine (20 mM), salicylaldoxime (20 mM), DFP (50 mM), and tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAMe, 10 mM)-the latter two at concentrations known to inhibit Cls of the classic, and factor D of the alternate complement pathways. Increase fibrinolytic activity with TAMe is associated with reciprocal decrease in classic and alternate complement pathway activity. It is concluded that normal plasma fibrinolytic activity is relatively independent of plasmin as the ultimate fibrinolytic enzyme, that Hageman factor-dependent pathways are of minor importance, and that significant heat-stable and heat-labile nonplasmin fibrinolytic activities are operative. These may include proteinases involved in complement activation, and in common control of classic and alternate complement pathways, as well as other nonplasmin proteinases.  (+info)

(4/22) The possible involvement of trypsin-like enzymes in germination of spores of Bacillus cereus T and Bacillus subtilis 168.

Germination of spores of Bacillus cereus T and Bacillus subtilis 168 was inhibited by the trypsin inhibitors leupeptin and tosyllysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) and by the substrates tosylarginine methyl ester (TAME), benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (L-BAPNA) and D-BAPNA. Potencies of these inhibitory compounds were estimated by finding the concentration which inhibited 50% germination (ID50), as measured by events occurring early (loss of heat resistance), at an intermediate stage [dipicolinic acid (DPA) release], and late in germination (decrease in optical density). In B. cereus T, all the compounds inhibited early and late events with the same ID50. In B. subtilis, TAME inhibited early and late events at the same ID50, but all other inhibitors had a lower ID50 for late events than for early events. This suggests that a trypsin-like enzyme activity is involved at two sequential stages in the germination of B. subtilis spores, one occurring at or before the loss of heat resistance and one at or before the decrease in optical density. Different trypsin-like activities were detected in broken dormant spores and germinated spores of B. cereus T and in germinated spores of B. subtilis by means of three chromogenic substrates: benzoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (L-PheVA), L-BAPNA and D-BAPNA. Separation of extracts of germinated spores on non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels showed that in both species the substrates were hydrolysed by three distinct enzymes with different electrophoretic mobilities. The three enzymes had different Ki values for the above inhibitors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

(5/22) Kinetic properties of three isoforms of trypsin isolated from the pyloric caeca of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta).

Three isoforms of anionic chum salmon trypsin (ST-1, ST-2, and ST-3) were purified from the pyloric caeca of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The molecular weights of the three isoforms were about 24 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric points of ST-1, ST-2, and ST-3 were 5.8, 5.4, and 5.6, respectively. The apparent K(m) values of two isoforms (ST-1 and ST-2) for BAPA (benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide) hydrolysis at 5, 15, 25 and 35 degrees C were slightly higher than that of the main isoform ST-3, depending on temperature. The turnover numbers, k(cat), of ST-1 and ST-2 were about twice as high as that of ST-3. Consequently, the catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) of ST-1 and ST-2 were more efficient than ST-3. There were marked differences in both apparent K(m) and k(cat) values of three anionic chum salmon trypsins as compared to bovine cationic trypsin. K(m) values of all chum salmon trypsins were approximately 10 times lower than those of bovine trypsin, depending on the temperature. The k(cat) values of all chum salmon trypsins were about 2- to 5-fold higher than those of bovine trypsin; therefore, the catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) of chum salmon trypsin were 20- to 40-fold more efficient than those of bovine trypsin. On the other hand, k(cat)/K(m) values of ST-1 for TAME (tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester) hydrolysis were lower than those of bovine trypsin, whereas k(cat)/K(m) values of ST-2 and ST-3 were comparable to those of bovine trypsin, depending on the temperature.  (+info)

(6/22) Purification and characterization of a coagulant enzyme, okinaxobin I, from the venom of Trimeresurus okinavensis (Himehabu snake) which releases fibrinopeptide B.

A coagulant enzyme, named okinaxobin I, has been purified to homogeneity from the venom of Trimeresurus okinavensis (Himehabu) by chromatographies on Sephadex G-100 and CM-Toyopearl 650M columns. The enzyme was a monomer with a molecular weight of 37,000 and its isoelectric point was 5.4. The enzyme acted on fibrinogen to form fibrin clots with a specific activity of 77 NIH units/mg. Fibrinopeptide B was released at a rate much faster than fibrinopeptide A. The enzyme exhibited 2 to 3 times higher activity toward tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester and benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide than bovine thrombin. The esterase activity was strongly inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, and to a lesser extent by tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease like thrombin. The N-terminal sequence was highly homologous to those of coagulant enzymes from T. flavoviridis and Bothrops atrox, moojeni venoms which preferentially release fibrinopeptide A. In order to remove most, if not all, of the bonded carbohydrates, the enzyme was treated with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF), thereby reducing the molecular weight to 30,000. The protein contained approximately 260 amino acid residues when computation was based on this value. The HF-treated enzyme retained about 50% of the clotting and esterolytic (TAME) activities and preferentially released fibrinopeptide B from fibrinogen. The carbohydrate moiety is not crucial for enzyme activity but might be necessary for eliciting full activity.  (+info)

(7/22) Pharmacologic inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex induces a spindle checkpoint-dependent mitotic arrest in the absence of spindle damage.

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(8/22) Replacement of isoleucine-397 by threonine in the clotting proteinase factor IXa (Los Angeles and Long Beach variants) affects macromolecular catalysis but not L-tosylarginine methyl ester hydrolysis. Lack of correlation between the ox brain prothrombin time and the mutation site in the variant proteins.

Previously, from the plasma of unrelated haemophilia-B patients, we isolated two non-functional Factor IX variants, namely Los Angeles (IXLA) and Long Beach (IXLB). Both variants could be cleaved to yield Factor IXa-like molecules, but were defective in catalysing the cleavage of Factor X (macromolecular substrate) and in binding to antithrombin III (macromolecular inhibitor). In the present study we have identified the mutation of IXLA by amplifying the exons (including flanking regions) as well as the 5' end of the gene by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) method and sequencing the amplified DNA by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Comparison of the normal IX and IXLA sequences revealed only one base substitution (T----C) in exon VIII of IXLA, with a predicted replacement of Ile-397 to Thr in the mature protein. This mutation is the same as found recently for IXLB. The observation that IXLB and IXLA have the same mutation is an unexpected finding, since, on the basis of their ox brain prothrombin time (PT, a test that measures the ability of the variant Factor IX molecules to inhibit the activation of Factor X by Factor VIIa-tissue factor complex), these variants have been classified into two different groups and were thought to be genetically different. Our observation thus suggests that the ox brain PT does not reflect the locus of mutation in the coding region of the variant molecules. However, our analysis suggests that the ox brain PT is related to Factor IX antigen concentration in the patient's plasma. Importantly, although the mutation in IXLA or IXLB protein is in the catalytic domain, purified IXaLA and IXaLB hydrolyse L-tosylarginine methyl ester at rates very similar to that of normal IXa. These data, in conjunction with our recent data on Factor IXBm Lake Elsinore (Ala-390----Val mutant), strengthen a conclusion that the peptide region containing residues 390-397 of normal Factor IXa plays an essential role in macromolecular substrate catalysis and inhibitor binding. However, the two mutations noted thus far in this region do not distort S1 binding site in the Factor IXa enzyme.  (+info)