Rapamycin causes poorly reversible inhibition of mTOR and induces p53-independent apoptosis in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to link growth factor signaling and posttranscriptional control of translation of proteins that are frequently involved in cell cycle progression. However, the role of this pathway in cell survival has not been demonstrated. Here, we report that rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR kinase, induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in two rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines (Rh1 and Rh30) under conditions of autocrine cell growth. To examine the kinetics of rapamycin action, we next determined the rapamycin sensitivity of rhabdomyosarcoma cells exposed briefly (1 h) or continuously (6 days). Results demonstrate that Rh1 and Rh30 cells were equally sensitive to rapamycin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis under either condition. Apoptosis was detected between 24 and 144 h of exposure to rapamycin. Both cell lines have mutant p53; hence, rapamycin-induced apoptosis appears to be a p53-independent process. To determine whether induction of apoptosis by rapamycin was specifically due to inhibition of mTOR signaling, we engineered Rh1 and Rh30 clones to stably express a mutant form of mTOR that was resistant to rapamycin (Ser2035-->Ile; designated mTOR-rr). Rh1 and Rh30 mTOR-rr clones were highly resistant (>3000-fold) to both growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by rapamycin. These results are the first to indicate that rapamycin-induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibition of mTOR. Exogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I protected both Rh1 and Rh30 from apoptosis, without reactivating ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) downstream of mTOR. However, in rapamycin-treated cultures, the response to IGF-I differed between the cell lines: Rh1 cells proliferated normally, whereas Rh30 cells remained arrested in G1 phase but viable. Rapamycin is known to inhibit synthesis of specific proteins but did not inhibit synthesis or alter the levels of mTOR. To examine the rate at which the mTOR pathway recovered, the ability of IGF-I to stimulate p70S6K activity was followed in cells treated for 1 h with rapamycin and then allowed to recover in medium containing > or =100-fold excess of FK506 (to prevent rapamycin from rebinding to its cytosolic receptor FKBP-12). Our results indicate that, in Rh1 cells, rapamycin dissociates relatively slowly from FKBP-12, with a t1/2 of approximately 17.5 h. in the presence of FK506, whereas there was no recovery of p70S6K activity in the absence of this competitor. This was of interest because rapamycin was relatively unstable under conditions of cell culture having a biological t1/2 of approximately 9.9 h. These results help to explain why cells are sensitive following short exposures to rapamycin and may be useful in guiding the use of rapamycin analogues that are entering clinical trials as novel antitumor agents. (+info)
Protein phosphatase 2A interacts with the 70-kDa S6 kinase and is activated by inhibition of FKBP12-rapamycinassociated protein.
The FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP; also called RAFT1/mTOR) regulates translation initiation and entry into the cell cycle. Depriving cells of amino acids or treating them with the small molecule rapamycin inhibits FRAP and results in rapid dephosphorylation and inactivation of the translational regulators 4E-BP1(eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1) and p70(s6k) (the 70-kDa S6 kinase). Data published recently have led to the view that FRAP acts as a traditional mitogen-activated kinase, directly phosphorylating 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k) in response to mitogenic stimuli. We present evidence that FRAP controls 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k) phosphorylation indirectly by restraining a phosphatase. A calyculin A-sensitive phosphatase is required for the rapamycin- or amino acid deprivation-induced dephosphorylation of p70(s6k), and treatment of Jurkat I cells with rapamycin increases the activity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) toward 4E-BP1. PP2A is shown to associate with p70(s6k) but not with a mutated p70(s6k) that is resistant to rapamycin- and amino acid deprivation-mediated dephosphorylation. FRAP also is shown to phosphorylate PP2A in vitro, consistent with a model in which phosphorylation of PP2A by FRAP prevents the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and p70(s6k), whereas amino acid deprivation or rapamycin treatment inhibits FRAP's ability to restrain the phosphatase. (+info)
Leucine regulates translation of specific mRNAs in L6 myoblasts through mTOR-mediated changes in availability of eIF4E and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6.
Regulation of translation of mRNAs coding for specific proteins plays an important role in controlling cell growth, differentiation, and transformation. Two proteins have been implicated in the regulation of specific mRNA translation: eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E and ribosomal protein S6. Increased phosphorylation of eIF4E as well as its overexpression are associated with stimulation of translation of mRNAs with highly structured 5'-untranslated regions. Similarly, phosphorylation of S6 results in preferential translation of mRNAs containing an oligopyrimidine tract at the 5'-end of the message. In the present study, leucine stimulated phosphorylation of the eIF4E-binding protein, 4E-BP1, in L6 myoblasts, resulting in dissociation of eIF4E from the inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex. The increased availability of eIF4E was associated with a 1.6-fold elevation in ornithine decarboxylase relative to global protein synthesis. Leucine also stimulated phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase, p70(S6k), resulting in increased phosphorylation of S6. Hyperphosphorylation of S6 was associated with a 4-fold increase in synthesis of elongation factor eEF1A. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the protein kinase mTOR, prevented all of the leucine-induced effects. Thus, leucine acting through an mTOR-dependent pathway stimulates the translation of specific mRNAs both by increasing the availability of eIF4E and by stimulating phosphorylation of S6. (+info)
Clonal selection and in vivo quantitation of protein interactions with protein-fragment complementation assays.
Two strategies are described for detecting constitutive or induced protein-protein interactions in intact mammalian cells; these strategies are based on oligomerization domain-assisted complementation of rationally designed fragments of the murine enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; EC 18.104.22.168). We describe a dominant clonal-selection assay of stably transfected cells expressing partner proteins FKBP (FK506 binding protein) and FRAP (FKBP-rapamycin binding protein) fused to DHFR fragments and show a rapamycin dose-dependent survival of clones that requires approximately 25 molecules of reconstituted DHFR per cell. A fluorescence assay also is described, based on stoichiometric binding of fluorescein-methotrexate to reconstituted DHFR in vivo. Formation of the FKBP-rapamycin-FRAP complex is detected in stably and transiently transfected cells. Quantitative rapamycin dose-dependence of this complex is shown to be consistent with in vitro binding and distinguishable from a known constitutive interaction of FKBP and FRAP. We also show that this strategy can be applied to study membrane protein receptors, demonstrating dose-dependent activation of the erythropoietin receptor by ligands. The combination of these clonal-selection and fluorescence assays in intact mammalian cells makes possible selection by simple survival, flow cytometry, or both. High-throughput drug screening and quantitative analysis of induction or disruption of protein-protein interactions are also made possible. (+info)
The PIK-related kinases intercept conventional signaling pathways.
Early efforts to place the first cloned mammalian PIK-related kinase, FRAP, into a conventional membrane to nuclear pathway met with little success. More recent data suggest that members of the family of PIK-related kinases act as intracellular sensors that govern radial and horizontal pathways. These pathways can impinge upon classical membrane to nuclear pathways, as well as components of the cell-cycle machinery. (+info)
Interaction of RAFT1 with gephyrin required for rapamycin-sensitive signaling.
RAFT1 (rapamycin and FKBP12 target 1; also called FRAP or mTOR) is a member of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)-related family of proteins and functions as the in vivo mediator of the effects of the immunosuppressant rapamycin and as an important regulator of messenger RNA translation. In mammalian cells RAFT1 interacted with gephyrin, a widely expressed protein necessary for the clustering of glycine receptors at the cell membrane of neurons. RAFT1 mutants that could not associate with gephyrin failed to signal to downstream molecules, including the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase and the eIF-4E binding protein, 4E-BP1. The interaction with gephyrin ascribes a function to the large amino-terminal region of an ATM-related protein and reveals a role in signal transduction for the clustering protein gephyrin. (+info)
Transformation by v-Src: Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR mediate parallel pathways.
An increase in the level of active, GTP-bound Ras is not necessary for transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) by v-Src. This suggests that other Ras-independent pathways contribute to transformation by v-Src. To address the possibility that activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR/FRAP), represents one of these pathways, we have examined the effect of simultaneous inhibition of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-mTOR pathways on transformation of CEF by v-Src. Transformation was assessed by the standard parameters of morphological alteration, increased hexose uptake, loss of density inhibition, and anchorage-independent growth. Inhibition of the Ras-MAPK pathway by expression of the dominant-negative Ras mutant HRasN17 or by addition of the MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 reduced several of these parameters but failed to block transformation. Similarly, inhibition of the PI3K-mTOR pathway by addition of the PI3K inhibitor 2-[4-morpholinyl]-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002) or the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, although reducing several parameters of transformation, also failed to block transformation. However, simultaneous inhibition of signaling by the Ras-MAPK pathway and the PI3K-mTOR pathway essentially blocked transformation. These data indicate that transformation of CEF by v-Src is mediated by two parallel pathways, the Ras-MAPK pathway and the PI-3K-mTOR pathway, which both contribute to transformation. The possibility that simultaneous activation of other pathways is also required is not excluded. (+info)
Regulation of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation: a novel two-step mechanism.
The multisubunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5' end of mRNA. The eIF4F subunit eIF4E interacts directly with the mRNA 5' cap structure. Assembly of the eIF4F complex is inhibited by a family of repressor polypeptides, the eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). Binding of the 4E-BPs to eIF4E is regulated by phosphorylation: Hypophosphorylated 4E-BP isoforms interact strongly with eIF4E, whereas hyperphosphorylated isoforms do not. 4E-BP1 is hypophosphorylated in quiescent cells, but is hyperphosphorylated on multiple sites following exposure to a variety of extracellular stimuli. The PI3-kinase/Akt pathway and the kinase FRAP/mTOR signal to 4E-BP1. FRAP/mTOR has been reported to phosphorylate 4E-BP1 directly in vitro. However, it is not known if FRAP/mTOR is responsible for the phosphorylation of all 4E-BP1 sites, nor which sites must be phosphorylated to release 4E-BP1 from eIF4E. To address these questions, a recombinant FRAP/mTOR protein and a FRAP/mTOR immunoprecipitate were utilized in in vitro kinase assays to phosphorylate 4E-BP1. Phosphopeptide mapping of the in vitro-labeled protein yielded two 4E-BP1 phosphopeptides that comigrated with phosphopeptides produced in vivo. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that these peptides contain phosphorylated Thr-37 and Thr-46. Thr-37 and Thr-46 are efficiently phosphorylated in vitro by FRAP/mTOR when 4E-BP1 is bound to eIF4E. However, phosphorylation at these sites was not associated with a loss of eIF4E binding. Phosphorylated Thr-37 and Thr-46 are detected in all phosphorylated in vivo 4E-BP1 isoforms, including those that interact with eIF4E. Finally, mutational analysis demonstrated that phosphorylation of Thr-37/Thr-46 is required for subsequent phosphorylation of several carboxy-terminal serum-sensitive sites. Taken together, our results suggest that 4E-BP1 phosphorylation by FRAP/mTOR on Thr-37 and Thr-46 is a priming event for subsequent phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal serum-sensitive sites. (+info)