The effect of triclosan toothpaste on enamel demineralization in a bacterial demineralization model.
Triclosan has been incorporated into toothpaste to enhance inhibitory effects on bacterial metabolism in dental plaque. Many studies have confirmed these effects by showing a reduction of accumulation of dental plaque, gingivitis and calculus. However, there is no evidence for triclosan having an inhibitory effect on the dental plaque-induced demineralization of the dental hard tissues. Therefore, the effect of 0.3% triclosan added to non-fluoride and fluoride toothpaste was tested in an in vitro model, in which bovine enamel specimens were to be demineralized by acids produced in overlaying Streptococcus mutans suspensions. In a first set of experiments the toothpastes were added to the S. mutans suspensions at 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10,000 (w/v) dilutions. After 22 h incubation at 37 degrees C the suspensions were removed and assessed for calcium and lactate content, and pH. In this set of experiments, triclosan had no additive protective effect to the non-fluoride or fluoride toothpaste. In a second set of experiments, the enamel specimens were immersed daily for 3 min in 30% (w/v) slurries of the toothpastes before the 22 h incubation with the S. mutans suspensions. Under these conditions, triclosan showed an additional protective effect compared with non-fluoride toothpaste at a low concentration of S. mutans cells (0.07 mg cells dry weight per 600 microL suspension). It is concluded that the enamel surface may act as a reservoir for triclosan, which may protect the enamel surface against a mild acid attack. In combination with fluoride, however, as in toothpaste, triclosan has no additional protective effect against demineralization. (+info)
The pH of tooth-whitening products.
Tooth whitening products may be in contact with intraoral structures for several hours or they may be used daily to whiten the teeth. Consequently, these products should have a relatively neutral pH to minimize potential damage. This study measured the pH of 26 commercially available tooth-whitening products. The pH of the different whitening products ranged from 3.67 (highly acidic) to 11.13 (highly basic). The dentist-supervised home-bleaching products had a mean pH of 6.48 (range 5.66 to 7.35). The over-the-counter whitening products had a mean pH of 8.22 (range 5.09 to 11.13), and the whitening toothpastes had a mean pH of 6.83 (range 4.22 to 8.35). The 3 in-office bleaching products had a pH between 3.67 and 6.53. One-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the 4 product categories. The most basic pH of all the products tested was 11.13 for the whitening gel of Natural White-Rapid White. The most acidic pH of all products tested was 3.67 for Opalescence Xtra 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleach. The Least-Squares-Means test showed that the over-the-counter category had a pH significantly different from the other categories (p < 0.05). (+info)
Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (i.e., tooth decay) in the United States and other economically developed countries. When used appropriately, fluoride is both safe and effective in preventing and controlling dental caries. All U.S. residents are likely exposed to some degree to fluoride, which is available from multiple sources. Both health-care professionals and the public have sought guidance on selecting the best way to provide and receive fluoride. During the late 1990s, CDC convened a work group to develop recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. This report includes these recommendations, as well as a) critical analysis of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of fluoride modalities in preventing and controlling dental caries, b) ordinal grading of the quality of the evidence, and c) assessment of the strength of each recommendation. Because frequent exposure to small amounts of fluoride each day will best reduce the risk for dental caries in all age groups, the work group recommends that all persons drink water with an optimal fluoride concentration and brush their teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. For persons at high risk for dental caries, additional fluoride measures might be needed. Measured use of fluoride modalities is particularly appropriate during the time of anterior tooth enamel development (i.e., age <6 years). The recommendations in this report guide dental and other health-care providers, public health officials, policy makers, and the public in the use of fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while using resources efficiently and reducing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis. The recommendations address public health and professional practice, self-care, consumer product industries and health agencies, and further research. Adoption of these recommendations could further reduce dental caries in the United States and save public and private resources. (+info)
Clinical evaluation of an electron-ionizing toothbrush with a tooth paste containing stannous fluoride in treatment of dentine hypersensitivity following periodontal surgery.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an electro-ionizing toothbrush with stannous fluoride in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity following periodontal surgery. Thirty-two volunteers with dentin hypersensitivity were divided in two equal groups each using different methods: (Group I) stannous fluoride dentifrice and hyG Brnde ionizing brush without a battery and (Group II) stannous fluoride dentifrice and hyG Brnde ionizing brush with a battery. The volunteers brushed their teeth for 3 minutes twice a day for 12 weeks following one either of the test protocols. Mechanical (No 23 dental explorer), chemical (lemon juice) and thermal (dental air-water syringe) tests were used for the evaluation of the degree of dentin hypersensitivity. A subjective assessment of the degree of hypersensitivity for each stimulus was recorded. The evaluations were repeated at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgical treatment. The second group showed significantly less sensitivity than the first group. The findings appear to suggest that the ionizing brush may be an effective adjunct for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity in post-periodontal surgery. (+info)
The use of QLF to quantify in vitro whitening in a product testing model.
BACKGROUND: Professional and consumer interest in whitening products continues to increase against a background of both increased oral health awareness and demand for cosmetic procedures. In the current legal climate, few dentists are providing 'in-office' whitening treatments, and thus many patients turn to home-use products. The most common of these are the whitening toothpastes. Researchers are keen to quantify the effectiveness of such products through clinically relevant trials. AIM: Previous studies examining whitening products have employed a variety of stained substrates to monitor stain removal. This study aimed to quantify the removal of stain from human enamel using a new device, quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The experimental design follows that of a product-testing model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 previously extracted molar teeth were coated with transparent nail varnish leaving an exposed window of enamel. The sound, exposed enamel was subject to a staining regime of human saliva, chlorhexidine and tea. Each of the eleven teeth was subjected to serial exposures of a positive control (Bocasan), a negative control (water) and a test product (Yotuel toothpaste). Following each two-minute exposure QLF images of the teeth were taken (a total of 5 applications). Following completion of one test solution, the teeth were cleaned, re-stained and the procedure repeated with the next solution. QLF images were stored on a PC and analysed by a blinded single examiner. The deltaQ value at 5% threshold was reported. ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The study confirmed the ability of QLF to longitudinally quantify stain reduction from human enamel. The reliability of the technique in relation to positive and negative test controls was proven. The positive control had a significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher stain removal efficacy than water (p = 0.023) and Yotuel (p = 0.046). Yotuel was more effective than water (p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: The research community, the practicing clinician and the consumer all require sound product evaluation data. The use of human enamel specimens may offer more relevant clinical data. QLF has been designed as an in vivo device. Further development of the technique should permit in vivo clinical whitening trials. (+info)
Intentional use of the Hawthorne effect to improve oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the home care of noncompliant adolescent orthodontic patients with "poor" oral hygiene could be improved through the use of a deception strategy designed to intentionally induce the Hawthorne effect. This effect is often cited as being responsible for oral health improvements of control groups that receive placebo treatments. It is thought that participating in and fulfilling the requirements of a study alters subjects' behavior, thereby contributing to the improvement. Forty patients with histories of poor oral hygiene were assigned, in a quasi-random fashion, to two groups. Experimental subjects (n = 20) were presented with a situation that simulated participation in an experiment. These included the use of a consent form; distribution of tubes of toothpaste labeled "experimental"; instructions to brush twice a day for two minutes using a timer; and a request to return unused toothpaste. Control subjects (n = 20) had no knowledge of study participation. Tooth surface area covered with plaque was used as a proxy measure of home care behavior. It was measured at baseline, three months, and six months. Mean percentages of tooth surface covered with plaque for the experimental and control groups were 71 (+/- 11.52) and 74 (+/- 11.46) at baseline; 54 (+/- 13.79) and 78 (+/- 12.18) at three months; and 52 (+/- 13.04) and 79 (+/- 10.76) at six months. No statistically significant difference (p > .05) was obtained between groups at baseline. Statistically significant differences (p < .05) were found between groups at three and six months. Significant differences (p < .05) were also found only for the experimental subjects between baseline and each of the two subsequent observation periods. The efficiency and potential effectiveness of this strategy suggest that additional research be conducted to assess oral health improvements and possible applications to the private practice setting. (+info)
Unconventional dentistry: Part IV. Unconventional dental practices and products.
This is the fourth in a series of 5 articles providing a contemporary overview and introduction to unconventional dentistry (UD) and its correlation to unconventional medicine (UM). Several common UD and UM practices are described to familiarize practitioners with a variety of theories, practices, products and treatments that specifically apply to dentistry. This brief review is not intended as an in-depth resource. (+info)
Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity.
These consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity were developed by a broadly constituted board of dentists and dental hygienists drawn from general dental practice, specialist practice, academia and research from across Canada, joined by 2 international dentists with subject matter expertise. The need for consensus recommendations was made evident by the lack of clear and robust evidence in the dental literature, as well as confusion about diagnosis and management demonstrated by an educational needs assessment survey. High prevalence of the condition, underdiagnosis and widespread availability of noninvasive, efficacious and inexpensive preventive treatment further underscored the need for direction. This paper outlines the key elements of the scientific basis for the causes, diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity; where such evidence is deficient, the document relies on the compound experience of the board. A simple algorithm was developed to guide clinicians through the diagnostic process and assist them in determining appropriate case management. Finally, the board makes a series of recommendations to raise awareness, to improve dental education, to develop symbols for charting, to develop an index for case assessment and for further research. (+info)