(1/125) Dental enamel formation and its impact on clinical dentistry.

The nature of tooth enamel is of inherent interest to dental professionals. The current-day clinical practice of dentistry involves the prevention of enamel demineralization, the promotion of enamel remineralization, the restoration of cavitated enamel where demineralization has become irreversible, the vital bleaching of dental enamel that has become discolored, and the diagnosis and treatment of developmental enamel malformations, which can be caused by environmental or genetic factors. On a daily basis, dental health providers make diagnostic and treatment decisions that are influenced by their understanding of tooth formation. A systemic condition during tooth development, such as high fever, can produce a pattern of enamel defects in the dentition. Knowing the timing of tooth development permits estimates about the timing of the disturbance. The process of enamel maturation continues following tooth eruption, so that erupted teeth can become less susceptible to decay over time. Mutations in the genes encoding enamel proteins lead to amelogenesis imperfecta, a collection of inherited diseases having enamel malformations as the predominant phenotype. Defects in the amelogenin gene cause X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta, and genes encoding other enamel proteins are candidates for autosomal forms. Here we review our current understanding of dental enamel formation, and relate this information to clinical circumstances where this understanding may be particularly relevant.  (+info)

(2/125) Methods of stopping or reversing early carious lesions fluoride: a European perspective.

The purpose of this review was to discuss the findings of the systematic review of the management of the early carious lesion with fluoride from a European perspective. The review was checked, and the overall finding that the evidence was incomplete was confirmed. It was suggested that the reason that few data were available was that clinical trials had not been designed to answer this question and that the baseline of healthy teeth and surfaces with very early lesions were rarely quantified. The European perspective would want to identify a clinical method that could manage these lesions better than the home use of fluoride toothpaste. Future research was recommended in the form of several systematic reviews and re-analysis of existing data. Only then could further studies be recommended. In modern European dentistry, restoring these lesions is not an option.  (+info)

(3/125) Emerging methods used in the prevention and repair of carious tissues.

A systematic review was undertaken to investigate four emerging methodologies that might be used in the prevention of caries and/or repair of carious tissues. These included a partitioned dentifrice, laser technology, fluoride-releasing dental materials, and for deep carious lesions, bone morphogenic protein (BMP) therapy. The search strategy was to review articles written in English, indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and published since 1976. Over two hundred articles were read but because of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only thirty-three were included in the evidence tables. The review of partitioned toothpaste showed either a greater remineralizing effect or a greater increase in the resistance to demineralization of both enamel and dentin, with the exception of its lack of effectiveness on coronal caries in the only clinical trial. Five of the six in vitro studies on enamel and the one study on dentin reported that lased tissue was less soluble than nonlased. Six clinical and four in situ studies were reviewed in answering the question as to whether fluoride-releasing restorative materials increase the remineralization or resistance to demineralization of human enamel and dentin. Eight of these reported positive findings. Six animal studies investigating BMP were reviewed, and all showed the ability of BMP to induce tubular dentin formation. Although the laboratory, animal, and limited clinical trials report encouraging results, independent, randomized, controlled clinical trials need to be carried out before these emerging technologies can be recommended for use in general practice.  (+info)

(4/125) Clinical decision-making for caries management in root surfaces.

This report presents the results of an evidence-based approach to obtaining the best available information on the natural history, prevalence, incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of root caries. Searches of electronic databases produced 807 references; from these and from citations in the selected articles, a final 161 references were used. We found that the information on the natural history of the disease does not provide practitioners with probabilities of, or time estimates for, progression of the disease through stages. For patients aged thirty and older, the prevalence of root caries is roughly 20 to 22 percent less than a person's age. Severity reaches over one lesion by age fifty, two lesions by age seventy, and just over three lesions for those seventy-five and older. About 8 percent (odds of 1:11) of the population would be expected to acquire one or more new root caries lesions in one year. The accuracy of current systems of diagnosis is unknown, although color has been shown to have little validity. Using the criteria of "softness" to define active lesions has been validated by the presence of microbes in the lesion. One strong study and other studies with weaker design or shorter duration add consistent support for the use of fluorides in the remineralization of root caries. Every three-month application of chlorhexidine varnish was shown to be efficacious in one arm of one study. Evidence for restoration of root caries is tentative since the studies were of limited design and duration.  (+info)

(5/125) Analysis of pulpal reactions to restorative procedures, materials, pulp capping, and future therapies.

Every year, despite the effectiveness of preventive dentistry and dental health care, 290 million fillings are placed each year in the United States; two-thirds of these involve the replacement of failed restorations. Improvements in the success of restorative treatments may be possible if caries management strategies, selection of restorative materials, and their proper use to avoid post-operative complications were investigated from a biological perspective. Consequently, this review will examine pulp injury and healing reactions to different restorative variables. The application of tissue engineering approaches to restorative dentistry will require the transplantation, replacement, or regeneration of cells, and/or stimulation of mineralized tissue formation. This might solve major dental problems, by remineralizing caries lesions, vaccinating against caries and oral diseases, and restoring injured or replacing lost teeth. However, until these therapies can be introduced clinically, the avoidance of post-operative complications with conventional therapies requires attention to numerous aspects of treatment highlighted in this review.  (+info)

(6/125) Dental erosion in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Dentists are often the first health care professionals to diagnose dental erosion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, and GERD is defined as symptoms or complications of GER. Twenty-four-hour monitoring of esophageal pH is helpful in diagnosing GERD. Treatment of dental erosion resulting from GERD involves a multidisciplinary approach among family physician, dentist, prosthodontist, orthodontist and gastroenterologist. When possible, dental erosion should be treated with minimal intervention, and such treatment should include control of microflora, remineralization, adhesive restorations and use of biomimetic materials.  (+info)

(7/125) The in vitro detection of early enamel de- and re-mineralization adjacent to bonded orthodontic cleats using quantitative light-induced fluorescence.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) could detect very early demineralization and remineralization longitudinally adjacent to orthodontic components in an in vitro model. Extracted human premolars (n = 13) were sectioned sagittally to produce two equal halves and an orthodontic cleat was bonded to the buccal surface of each tooth. Transparent nail varnish was placed over the remaining surface, leaving exposed enamel windows adjacent to the cleat on the coronal and gingival aspects. Each half-tooth was placed into the lid of an Eppendorf tube and randomly assigned to either control (distilled water) or experimental (lactic acid demineralizing buffer, pH 4.5) regimes. Digital photographs and QLF baseline images were taken. The tubes were mounted into a rotating holder and left for 24 hours. QLF and digital photographs were taken, the solutions refreshed and the teeth returned. This was continued every 48 hours for 288 hours. At this time the lactic acid buffer was replaced with a remineralizing solution (artificial saliva, fluoride, calcium) and the experiment continued with weekly examinations. QLF images were analysed and deltaQ at the 5 per cent threshold recorded. Analysis of the QLF images showed that both demineralization and remineralization were identified and monitored. Statistical differences between each of the timed examinations were found (P < 0.05). Analysis of the photographs demonstrated that QLF detected subclinical lesions. This initial pilot study has demonstrated the potential for QLF to longitudinally monitor de- and re-mineralization of enamel adjacent to orthodontic cleats in vitro.  (+info)

(8/125) Effect of fluoride exposure on cariostatic potential of orthodontic bonding agents: an in vitro evaluation.

AIMS: The aims of this in vitro study were to compare the cariostatic potential of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC) to that of a resin control (Transbond) for bracket bonding and to compare the effect of extrinsic fluoride application on the cariostatic potential of each material. SETTING: Ex vivo study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Orthodontic brackets were bonded to 40 extracted premolars, 20 with Fuji Ortho LC and 20 with Transbond. The teeth were subjected to pH cycling, pH 4.55, and pH 6.8, over a 30-day period. Ten teeth bonded with each material were immersed in a 1000 ppm fluoride solution for 2 minutes each day. Fluoride release was measured throughout the study from all teeth. After 30 days, the teeth were assessed visually for signs of enamel decalcification. RESULTS: Significant differences in decalcification existed macroscopically between all four groups of teeth, with the exception of those bonded with Fuji Ortho LC alone compared with Transbond alone (P = 0.22), and Fuji Ortho LC alone compared with Transbond with added fluoride (P = 0.3). Fluoride release from Fuji Ortho LC alone fell to minimal values, but with the addition of extrinsic fluoride the levels fell initially and then followed an upward trend. There was minimal fluoride release, from Transbond alone, but with daily addition of extrinsic fluoride, subsequent fluoride release was increased. Significant differences existed in the amount of fluoride released between all groups, except comparing Fuji Ortho LC alone and Transbond with added fluoride. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have indicated that with an in vitro tooth-bracket model, the creation of white spot inhibition could best be achieved by the use of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement, supplemented with fluoride exposure. The least protection was afforded by the composite control. The resin-modified glass ionomer cement alone and the composite with added fluoride demonstrated equivalent protection.  (+info)