Cystic lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of Waldeyer's ring origin.
We analysed in a retrospective study the frequency of cystic lymph node (LN) metastases in neck dissection specimens of 123 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in the palatine tonsils (62 M/14 F), the base of the tongue (38 M/5 F) and the nasopharynx (2 M/2 F). Eighty-two per cent of patients had metastases (64 tonsillar SCC, 33 base of tongue SCC and all four nasopharynx SCC) in 368 LN of a total 2298 sampled LN. Thirty-nine per cent of patients had exclusively solid metastases and 37% of patients had exclusively cystic metastases. A total of 62 patients had some signs of cyst formation in one or more metastatically affected LN (27 with only histological evidence of cyst formation with luminal diameters < 5 mm, 35 with clinically detectable cyst with luminal diameter > 5 mm). Cystic metastases were more common in patients with SCC of the base of the tongue (P = 0.005), while solitary clinically evident cystic metastasis with lumina > 5 mm were found exclusively in tonsillar carcinoma (P = 0.024). In comparison with solid metastases, cyst formation was associated with N-categories (N2b and N3, P = 0.005) in SCC of the base of the tongue origin. No such association was observed for tonsillar SCC (P = 0.65). The primary mechanism of cyst formation was cystic degeneration. (+info)
Nuclear DNA content and p53 overexpression in stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue compared with advanced tongue carcinomas.
AIMS: To evaluate the predictive value of the nuclear DNA content (image cytometry) and p53 overexpression (immuno-histochemistry using antibody CM-1) in uniformly treated stage I carcinomas of the mobile tongue. Also, to compare stage I carcinomas with advanced tongue carcinomas (stages II-IV). METHODS: Archival formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tumour specimens from 54 patients with stage I squamous cell carcinoma and 37 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma were analysed. Mean follow up time of the stage I carcinomas was 71 months (median, 62.5; range, 6-175). RESULTS: Twenty three patients (stage I) had recurring disease: 10 had local recurrence (in the tongue) and 13 had regional recurrence (cervical metastases). Locally recurring stage I carcinomas had a more pronounced DNA deviation than the other stage I carcinomas and this degree of deviation was comparable with the DNA content of advanced carcinomas. Stage I carcinomas that developed regional recurrences overexpressed p53 more frequently. In Cox multivariate regression analysis of time to recurrence, DNA deviation was a significant parameter in tumours that recurred locally (p = 0.032). p53 overexpression was the only parameter close to significance for regional recurrence (p = 0.065). CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear DNA content and p53 immunostaining are of value for the prediction of recurrence of stage I squamous cell carcinomas of the mobile tongue. Stage I tongue carcinomas that are prone to local recurrence show the same DNA content as do advanced tongue carcinomas. (+info)
The difference between delayed extubation and tracheostomy in post-operative sleep apnea after glossectomy or laryngectomy.
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer of the tongue or larynx require glossectomies or laryngectomies and subsequent reconstruction. These procedures remove part of the patient's upper airway. In cancer of the tongue, the removed part of the airway is substituted by a flap of their skin. Post-operatively, it is possible that the patients have problems respiring comfortably. In addition to this, long surgical procedures may simply interfere with their circadian rhythm. To elucidate the possible change in their post-operative respiration, we monitored the patient's respiratory pattern with an apnea monitor. METHODS: We attached an apnea monitor to the patients and recorded their respiratory pattern and arterial oxygen saturation. The patients were monitored for a total of five days: three days prior to the operation, one day before the operation, the day of operation, two days after, and on the fourth day after the operation. The period of monitoring was from 8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. the next morning. RESULTS: Sixteen patients completed this study. The patients whose tube was extubated after glossectomy showed frequent apnea, low mean oxygen saturation and low comfort score as compared to the patients with tracheostomy after laryngectomy. Because two failed cases of free skin flap were among the former, it is possible that the frequent apnea is a factor of failed free skin graft after glossectomy and laryngectomy. CONCLUSION: Further studies are required to improve the patient's respiration during their sleep after tracheal extubation in glossectomy. (+info)
Predictive value of malignancy grading systems, DNA content, p53, and angiogenesis for stage I tongue carcinomas.
AIM: To assess the clinical value of malignancy grading systems compared with nuclear DNA content, protein p53, and angiogenesis for predicting recurrence of stage I (UICC, 1987) tongue carcinomas. METHODS: Histopathological malignancy grading according to Jakobsson and tumour front grading according to Bryne et al were performed on haematoxylin and eosin slides. DNA analysis was performed by image cytometry. Protein p53 and angiogenesis were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis using antibody CM1 and antibody against factor VIII related antigen, respectively. RESULTS: 49 patients with stage I carcinomas of the mobile tongue were included, all treated by local surgical excision alone. Eight patients (16%) suffered from local recurrence during follow up, and 13 (27%) had regional recurrence. Both Jakobsson's malignancy grading system and p53 immunoreactivity proved to be useful predictors of regional recurrence in a Cox multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological malignancy grading systems provide valuable prognostic information and can still compete with current biological markers in this respect. (+info)
A large maxillofacial prosthesis for total mandibular defect: a case report.
We successfully fabricated a large maxillofacial prosthesis for replacement of a total mandibular defect resulting from surgical failure to reconstruct the mandible. Although a number of reports have described procedures for fabricating midfacial prostheses, there is little information on prostheses to compensate for total loss of the mandible. A 54-year-old woman was referred to the Dentistry and Oral Surgery Division of the National Cancer Center Hospital with total loss of the mandible and the surrounding facial soft tissue. The facial prosthesis we used to treat this patient is unique in that it is adequately retained without the use of extraoral implants and conventional adhesives. This prosthesis is retained by the bilateral auricles and the remaining upper front teeth. We present details of the design of this large silicone maxillofacial prosthesis, with which we successfully rehabilitated the patient. (+info)
Cyclin D1 and p16INK4A expression predict reduced survival in carcinoma of the anterior tongue.
Cyclin D1 and p16INK4A are molecules with pivotal roles in cell cycle control and the development of diverse human cancers, and overexpression of cyclin D1 and loss of p16INK4A expression are common genetic events in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The prognostic significance of these molecular events at different sites within the head and neck, however, remains controversial. Thus, we sought to determine the relationship between cyclin D1 and/or p16INK4A expression and disease outcome in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. Immunohistochemical detection of nuclear proteins cyclin D1, p53, and p16INK4A, and the Ki-67 labeling index was undertaken in tissue sections from 148 tongue cancers treated by surgical resection. Nuclear antigen status was analyzed in relation to pathological variables, tumor recurrence, and patient survival. Statistical significance was assessed using chi2 analysis for pathological variables and the Kaplan-Meier method, log rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model for survival parameters. Overexpression of cyclin D1 occurred in 68% of tumors (100 of 147) and was associated with increased lymph node stage (P = 0.014), increased tumor grade (P = 0.003), and reduced disease-free (P = 0.006) and overall (P = 0.01) survival. Loss of p16INK4A expression was demonstrated in 55% of tumors (78 of 143) and was associated with reduced disease-free (P = 0.007) and overall (P = 0.014) survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed that in addition to pathological stage and regional lymph node status, cyclin D1 overexpression and loss of p16INK4A expression are independent predictors of death from tongue cancer. Loss of p16INK4A in the presence of cyclin D1 overexpression conferred a significantly worse disease-free (P = 0.011) and overall (P = 0.002) survival at 5 years. p53 nuclear accumulation and the Ki-67 labeling index were not prognostic. These data indicate that cyclin D1 overexpression and loss of p16INK4A expression predict early relapse and reduced survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue. Simultaneous assessment of cyclin D1 and p16INK4A protein levels define subgroups of patients at increased risk of relapse and may be of clinical utility in optimizing therapy. (+info)
Malignant ectopic thymoma in the neck: a case report.
We report a case of malignant ectopic thymoma in the neck. Contrast-enhanced CT of the neck showed a well-defined inhomogeneously enhancing mass in the left jugulodigastric chain. One year after surgery, the mass had metastasized to the tongue base, and CT of the neck showed an ill-defined densely enhancing mass with lymphadenopathy. (+info)
Is radiation therapy a preferred alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue?
PURPOSE: To evaluate irradiation alone for treatment of base-of-tongue cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventeen patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue were treated with radiation alone and had follow-up for >/= 2 years. RESULTS: Local control rates at 5 years were as follows: T1, 96%; T2, 91%; T3, 81%; and T4, 38%. Multivariate analysis revealed that T stage (P =.0001) and overall treatment time (P =.0006) significantly influenced local control. The 5-year rates of local-regional control were as follows: I, 100%; II, 100%; III, 83%; IVA, 64%; and IVB, 65%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the following parameters significantly affect the probability of this end point: T stage (P =.0001), overall treatment time (P =.0001), overall stage (P =.0131), and addition of a neck dissection (P =.0021). The rates of absolute and cause-specific survival at 5 years were as follows: I, 50% and 100%; II, 81% and 100%; III, 65% and 76%; IVA, 42% and 56%; and IVB, 44% and 52%. Severe radiation complications developed in eight patients (4%). CONCLUSION: The likelihood of cure after external-beam irradiation was related to stage, overall treatment time, and addition of a planned neck dissection. The local-regional control rates and survival rates after radiation therapy were comparable to those after surgery, and the morbidity associated with irradiation was less. (+info)