Epidemiology of the most common oral mucosal diseases in children.
Dentists who treat children must be alert to the possibility of finding diseases of the oral mucosa, especially in younger children. The present study aimed to review the most updated information and the experience of our group in order to yield epidemiological data that assist diagnosis of the most common diseases of the oral mucosa in children. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a wide variability in the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in different regions of the world and have led researchers to draw disparate conclusions. Moreover, studies have not been designed using standard criteria, further explaining the wide variability in the percentage of different groups of children with oral lesions, which ranges from 4.1 to 52.6%. The lesions most frequently considered by authors and that most often appear in the different studies are: recurrent aphthous stomatitis (0.9-10.8%), labial herpes (0.78-5.2%), fissured tongue (1.49-23%), geographic tongue (0.60-9.8%), oral candidiasis (0.01-37%) and traumatic injury (0.09%-22.15%). Dentists must be able to detect any of the numerous possible disorders and perform the correct differential diagnosis, key to the treatment plan. The aim of this paper, based on a review of the different national and international studies, is to contribute data on the most important oral mucosal diseases in the paediatric population in terms of prevalence and differential diagnosis. (+info)
Phenotypic and dermatological manifestations in Down Syndrome.
Down syndrome (DS) is associated with various uncommon dermatological disorders and increased frequency of some common dermatoses. This study was conducted over a 2-year period to evaluate the frequency of phenotypic and dermatologic manifestations in patients with Down syndrome in south India. The most common phenotypic manifestations that characterize DS include the epicanthic fold (93.7%), brachicephaly (90.6%), flat nasal bridge (84.2%), upward angle of eyes (83.2%), wide gap between first and second toe (81.1%), clinodactyly (77.9%), small nose (74.7%), short broad neck (72.6%), single palmar crease (61.1%), increased nuchal skin fold (61.1%), and fissured tongue (52.6%). The most common dermatological manifestation seen in patients with DS were lichenification, xerosis, dental anomaly, fine, sparse hair, and delayed dentition. Alopecia areata was seen in 9.4 percent of patients and tended to be severe. Infections were relatively less common in our study. Our study has highlighted many phenotypic features and dermatoses, which may help provide better care for patients and counseling to the families. (+info)
Gingival fibromatosis with hemi-osseous hyperplasia of jaws, focal maxillary viral papillomatosis of gingiva, fissured tongue and congenitally missing anterior teeth: a case report and surgical management of a new syndrome.
Psoriasis and oral lesions: multicentric study of Oral Mucosa Diseases Italian Group (GIPMO).
OBJECTIVE: This is a multicentric, observational and controlled study designed to verify the existence of a significant association between plaque-type psoriasis and oral lesions, such as geographic tongue and/or fissured tongue. STUDY DESIGN: during a period of 9 months all consecutive patients with plaque-type psoriasis were enrolled using simple nonrandom (sequential) sampling. The control group included healthy subjects presenting to the same Dermatology centers to monitor pigmented skin lesions; the patients were matched for age and sex. All patients were examined for oral lesions. RESULTS: Out of a total of 535 psoriatic patients and 436 control group patients, oral mucosal lesions were detected in 188 (35.1%) and 86 (19.7%) cases, respectively, and the difference is statistically significant. Fissured tongue (FT) and geographic tongue (GT), which were most frequently detected, were seen more frequently in psoriatic patients (FT: 22.6%; GT: 9.1%) than the control group (FT: 10.3%; GT: 5.2%) (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the similar studies reported in the literature and the large number of patients involved in our study, we can conclude that FT and GT can be clearly suggested as oral manifestations of plaque-type psoriasis, although the reason for this association is not clear. (+info)
Prevalence of oral lesions and normal variants of the oral mucosa in 12 to 15-year-old students in Tehran, Iran.
Granulomatous cheilitis of Miescher: the diagnostic proof for a Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome.
BACKGROUND: The Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is a very rare clinical entity and its classical form is being characterized by the following triad: facial nerve palsy, swelling of the lips and fissured tongue. However, the monosymptomatic form is more common and the typical manifestation is facial edema and/or enlargement of the lips. CASE REPORT: We report a case of monosymptomatic MRS with a positive biopsy of granulomatous cheilitis. CONCLUSIONS: In the daily practice as a pediatrician, it is not usual to diagnose a patient as having MRS. We consider that this is partly because of misdiagnosis. We therefore believe that this case report will supply additional information, in the scope of recurrent facial paralysis and orofacial edema in both children and adults. (+info)
Prevalence of fungi in cases of geographical and fissured tongue.
One of the most common malformations of the tongue is fissured tongue, very often, is accompanied by geographic tongue; the etiopathogenesis of them is not known. The aim of study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungi in cases of fissured and geographic tongue, and to determine their species and susceptibility to selected antifungal drugs. The study included 104 patients with fissured and/or geographical tongue. To determine fungi present in the tongue, the material was collected with a sterile swab for mycological examination. The procedure was conducted according to that used at our Department. The in vitro susceptibility of the strains to nystatin and miconazole was evaluated. In 45 (43%) cases fissured tongue, in 28 (27%) geographic tongue, and in 31 (30%) both conditions were diagnosed. Mycological examination revealed fungi on the tongue in 73 (70%) patients, including 31 patients (69%) with fissured tongue, 19 (68%) with geographic tongue, and 23 (74%) with concomitant changes. The most frequently detected was Candida albicans (detected in 48-66% of cases); in individual cases, other species of Candida species were found. The strains demonstrated greater sensitivity to nystatin than to miconazole. An analysis of reported symptoms based on the presence or absence of fungi on the tongue revealed that idiopathic pain and burning were significantly more frequently reported by patients with fungi on the tongue (p = 0.034174). Statistically significant differences exist between the presence and absence of fungi with regard to the signs, symptoms of changes on the tongue (p = 0.026015). Also, statistically significant differences (p = 0.00000) exist regarding the presence of fungi with regard to brushing a fissured tongue, or a fissured and geographic tongue; fungi are frequently present when brushing is absent. The prevalence of fungi is greatest in patients with geographic tongue, especially those who do not brush the surface of the tongue. (+info)