(1/754) Evaluation of focal defects of the nerve fiber layer using optical coherence tomography.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze glaucomatous eyes with known focal defects of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), relating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to clinical examination, NFL and stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photography, and Humphrey 24-2 visual fields. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. PARTICIPANTS: The authors followed 19 patients in the study group and 14 patients in the control group. INTERVENTION: Imaging with OCT was performed circumferentially around the ONH with a circle diameter of 3.4 mm using an internal fixation technique. One hundred OCT scan points taken within 2.5 seconds were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurements of NFL thickness using OCT were performed. RESULTS: In most eyes with focal NFL defects, OCTs showed significant thinning of the NFL in areas closely corresponding to focal defects visible on clinical examination, to red-free photographs, and to defects on the Humphrey visual fields. Optical coherence tomography enabled the detection of focal defects in the NFL with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 81%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of NFL thickness in eyes with focal defects showed good structural and functional correlation with clinical parameters. Optical coherence tomography contributes to the identification of focal defects in the NFL that occur in early stages of glaucoma. (+info)
(2/754) Inter- and intraobserver variation in the analysis of optic disc images: comparison of the Heidelberg retina tomograph and computer assisted planimetry.
AIMS: The development of imaging and measurement techniques has brought the prospect of greater objectivity in the measurement of optic disc features, and therefore better agreement between observers. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the variation between observers using two measurement devices. METHODS: Optic disc photographs and images from the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) of 30 eyes of 30 subjects were presented to six observers for analysis, and to one observer on five separate occasions. Agreement between observers was studied by comparing the analysis of each observer with the median result of the other five, and expressed as the mean difference and standard deviation of differences between the observer and the median. Inter- and intraobserver variation was calculated as a coefficient of variation (mean SD/mean x 100). RESULTS: For planimetry, agreement between observers was dependent on observer experience, for the HRT it was independent. Agreement between observers (SD of differences as a percentage of the median) for optic disc area was 4.0% to 7.2% (planimetry) and 3.3% to 6.0% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 10.8% to 21.0% (planimetry) and 5.2% to 9.6% (HRT). The mean interobserver coefficient of variation for optic disc area was 8.1% (planimetry) and 4.4% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 16.3% (planimetry) and 8.1% (HRT), and (HRT only) for rim volume was 16.3%, and reference height 9.1%. HRT variability was greater for the software version 1.11 reference plane than for version 1.10. The intraobserver coefficient of variation for optic disc area was 1.5% (planimetry) and 2.4% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 4.0% (planimetry) and 4.5% (HRT). CONCLUSIONS: Variation between observers is greatly reduced by the HRT when compared with planimetry. However, levels of variation, which may be clinically significant, remain for variables that depend on the subjective drawing of the disc margin. (+info)
(3/754) High-voltage electron tomography of spindle pole bodies and early mitotic spindles in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The spindle pole body (SPB) is the major microtubule-organizing center of budding yeast and is the functional equivalent of the centrosome in higher eukaryotic cells. We used fast-frozen, freeze-substituted cells in conjunction with high-voltage electron tomography to study the fine structure of the SPB and the events of early spindle formation. Individual structures were imaged at 5-10 nm resolution in three dimensions, significantly better than can be achieved by serial section electron microscopy. The SPB is organized in distinct but coupled layers, two of which show ordered two-dimensional packing. The SPB central plaque is anchored in the nuclear envelope with hook-like structures. The minus ends of nuclear microtubules (MTs) are capped and are tethered to the SPB inner plaque, whereas the majority of MT plus ends show a distinct flaring. Unbudded cells containing a single SPB retain 16 MTs, enough to attach to each of the expected 16 chromosomes. Their median length is approximately 150 nm. MTs growing from duplicated but not separated SPBs have a median length of approximately 130 nm and interdigitate over the bridge that connects the SPBs. As a bipolar spindle is formed, the median MT length increases to approximately 300 nm and then decreases to approximately 30 nm in late anaphase. Three-dimensional models confirm that there is no conventional metaphase and that anaphase A occurs. These studies complement and extend what is known about the three-dimensional structure of the yeast mitotic spindle and further our understanding of the organization of the SPB in intact cells. (+info)
(4/754) Detection of optic disc change with the Heidelberg retina tomograph before confirmed visual field change in ocular hypertensives converting to early glaucoma.
AIM: To determine whether analysis of sequential optic disc images obtained with the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) is able to demonstrate optic disc change before the development of reproducible field defects in a group of ocular hypertensive (OHT) patients converting to early glaucoma. METHODS: Two groups were analysed: (1) 13 eyes of 13 OHT patients who subsequently developed reproducible field defects (converters); and (2) 13 eyes of 11 normal control subjects. Two sequential optic disc images were obtained using the HRT (median separation between images was 12 months for the converters and 13 months for the normals). The second image in the converter group was obtained before confirmed visual field loss. The optic disc variables were analysed both globally and segmentally using HRT software version 1.11. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine if there were any significant differences between the variables of the two image sets. RESULTS: Significant optic disc change was demonstrated in the group of converters: (1) global variables: the cup area increased by 9.7%, the C/D area ratio increased by 10.5%, and the rim area decreased by 6.9%; (2) segmental variables: the superonasal cup area increased by 11.0%, the superonasal C/D area ratio increased 11.7%, and the inferonasal cup volume increased by 28.4%. The temporal rim volume decreased by 15.6%, the inferotemporal rim volume decreased by 23.6%, and the rim area in the superonasal and superotemporal segments decreased by 6.6% and 6.9% respectively. CONCLUSION: Analysis of sequential optic disc images on the HRT allowed the detection of glaucomatous change before confirmed visual field change in a group of OHT patients converting to early glaucoma. (+info)
(5/754) Comparison between laser scanning tomography and computerised image analysis of the optic disc.
AIMS: To study the interchangeability of the measurements of the optic disc topography obtained by one computerised image analyser and one confocal laser tomographic scanner. METHODS: One eye of 28 patients with glaucoma or glaucoma suspects was studied. All cases had simultaneous stereoscopic disc photographs taken with the fundus camera Topcon TRC-SS and optic disc examination with the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) during the same visit. The optic disc photographs were digitised and analysed with the Topcon ImageNet (TI) system. Three variables of the optic disc topography provided by the TI and the HRT were compared--cup volume (CV), rim area (RA), and cup area to disc area ratio (CA/DA). RESULTS: The mean values of CV and RA provided by the TI (0.52 (SD 0.32) mm3 and 1.58 (0.39) mm2, respectively) were greater (p < 0.01) than the mean values of CV and RA determined by the HRT (0.32 (0.25) mm3, and 1.33 (0.47) mm2, respectively). The mean value of CA/DA provided by the TI (0.42 (0.14)) and the HRT (0.42 (0.18)) was similar (p = 0.93). Correlation coefficients between measurements obtained by the two methods ranged from 0.53 to 0.73. CONCLUSION: There was a significant discrepancy in the measurements of rim area and cup volume of the optic disc obtained by a computerised image analyser and a laser scanning tomograph. (+info)
(6/754) Preperimetric glaucoma diagnosis by confocal scanning laser tomography of the optic disc.
AIM: To evaluate the ability of confocal scanning laser tomography of the optic nerve head to detect glaucomatous optic nerve damage in ocular hypertensive eyes without visual field defects. METHODS: The study included 50 normal subjects, 61 glaucoma patients with glaucomatous changes in the optic disc and visual field, and 102 "preperimetric" patients with increased intraocular pressure, normal visual fields, and glaucomatous appearance of the optic disc as evaluated on colour stereo optic disc photographs. For all individuals, confocal scanning laser tomographs of the optic nerve head were taken using the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT; software 2.01). RESULTS: Almost all investigated HRT variables varied significantly (p < 0.05) between the normal eyes and preperimetric glaucoma eyes with pronounced overlap between the two study groups. Corresponding to the overlap, sensitivity and specificity values were relatively low when HRT variables were taken to differentiate between normal and preperimetric glaucoma eyes. At a given specificity of 95% highest sensitivities were found for the variables "rim area in the superior disc sector" (24.8%), "nerve fibre layer thickness in the inferior disc sector" (26.5%), and "rim volume in the superior disc sector" (25.5%). A multivariate approach increased sensitivity to 42.2% at a given specificity of 95%. For the glaucoma group highest sensitivity values were reached by rim volume in the superior disc sector (73.8%) and rim area (72.1%); the multivariate approach reached 83.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to pronounced overlapping between the groups, confocal scanning laser tomography of the optic nerve head has relatively low diagnostic power to differentiate between normal eyes and preperimetric glaucoma eyes. One of the reasons may be the biological interindividual variability of quantitative optic disc variables. (+info)
(7/754) Visual function correlates with nerve fiber layer thickness in eyes affected by ocular hypertension.
PURPOSE: To test whether the high variability observed when measuring pattern electroretinogram (PERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and spatial contrast sensitivity (SCS) in eyes with ocular hypertension is associated with variation in nerve fiber layer thickness, as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: The study involved 32 untreated eyes (32 patients; age range, 29-64 years) showing a normal whiteon-white 24/2 Humphrey (San Leandro, CA) perimetry, IOP between 23 and 28 mm Hg, best corrected acuity of 20/20 or better, and none of the following papillary signs on conventional color stereo slides: rim notch(es), peripapillary splinter hemorrhages, or increased vertical-to-horizontal cup-to-disc ratio. On recruitment, each eye underwent SCS testing, OCT, PERG, and VEP recordings. Linear regression (Pearson's test) or Spearman's rank regression was adopted for the analysis of the data. RESULTS: The 95% confidence limits of the electrophysiological data were: PERG P50 latency, 59.3 to 63 msec; PERG P50 to N95 amplitude, 0.74 to 1.15 cmV; VEP P100 latency, 113 to 118 msec; VEP N75 to P100 amplitude, 3.81 to 4.90 micromV. The 360 degrees nerve fiber layer thickness overall (NFLO) ranged between 113 and 169 microm (145+/-16 microm; mean+/-SD) and significantly correlated with PERG P50 to N95 amplitude (r: 0.518; P = 0.002), PERG P50 latency (r: -0.470; P = 0.007), VEP N75 to P100 amplitude (r: 0.460; P = 0.008), VEP P100 latency (r = -0.422; P = 0.016) and SCS at 3 cyc/deg (r: -0.358; P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The variability of PERG, VEP, and SCS testing observed in eyes with ocular hypertension is associated with differences in NFL thickness (the thinner the layer, the worse the visual function). (+info)
(8/754) Deficiency of SHP-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity results in heightened osteoclast function and decreased bone density.
Mice homozygous for the motheaten (Hcphme) or viable motheaten (Hcphme-v) mutations are deficient in functional SHP-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase and show severe defects in hematopoiesis. Comparison of femurs from mev/mev mice revealed significant decreases in bone mineral density (0.33 +/- 0.03 mg/mm3 for mev/mevversus 0.41 +/- 0.01 mg/mm3 for controls) and mineral content (1.97 +/- 0.36 mg for mev/mevversus 10.64 +/- 0.67 for controls) compared with littermate controls. Viable motheaten mice also showed reduced amounts of trabecular bone and decreased cortical thickness. These bone abnormalities were associated with a 14% increase in numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts and an increase in osteoclast resorption activity. In co-cultures of normal osteoblasts with mutant or control bone marrow cells, numbers of osteoclasts developing from mutant mice were increased compared with littermate control mice. Although mev/mev osteoclasts develop in the absence of colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1, nevertheless cultured osteoclasts show increased size in the presence of CSF-1. CSF-1-deficient osteopetrosis (op/op) mutant mice develop severe osteosclerosis. However, doubly homozygous mev/mevop/op mice show an expansion of bone marrow cavities and reduced trabecular bone mass compared with op/op mice. Western blot analysis showed that several proteins that were markedly hyperphosphorylated on tyrosine residues were detected in the motheaten osteoclasts, including a novel 126-kd phosphotyrosine protein. The marked hyperphosphorylation of a 126-kd protein in motheaten osteoclasts suggests that this protein depends on SHP-1 for dephosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that the decreased SHP-1 catalytic activity in me/me and mev/mev mice results in an increased population of activated osteoclasts and consequent reduction in bone density. (+info)