Electron microscopic evidence against apoptosis as the mechanism of neuronal death in global ischemia.
It has been repeatedly claimed that neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 sector after untreated global ischemia occurs via apoptosis. This is based largely on DNA laddering, nick end labeling, and light microscopy. Delineation of apoptosis requires fine structural examination to detect morphological events of cell death. We studied the light and ultrastructural characteristics of CA1 injury after 5 min of untreated global ischemia in gerbils. To increase the likelihood of apoptosis, some ischemic gerbils were subjected to delayed postischemic hypothermia, a treatment that mitigates injury and delays the death of some neurons. In these gerbils, 2 d of mild hypothermia was initiated 1, 6, or 12 hr after ischemia, and gerbils were killed 4, 14, or 60 d later. Ischemia without subsequent cooling killed 96% of CA1 neurons by day 4, whereas all hypothermia-treated groups had significantly reduced injury at all survival times (2-67% loss). Electron microscopy of ischemic neurons with or without postischemic hypothermia revealed features of necrotic, not apoptotic, neuronal death even in cells that died 2 months after ischemia. Dilated organelles and intranuclear vacuoles preceded necrosis. Unique to the hypothermia-treated ischemic groups, some salvaged neurons were persistently abnormal and showed accumulation of unusual, morphologically complex secondary lysosomes. These indicate selective mitochondrial injury, because they were closely associated with normal and degenerate mitochondria, and transitional forms between mitochondria and lysosomes occurred. The results show that untreated global ischemic injury has necrotic, not apoptotic, morphology but do not rule out programmed biochemical events of the apoptotic pathway occurring before neuronal necrosis. (+info)
Early development of mushroom bodies in the brain of the honeybee Apis mellifera as revealed by BrdU incorporation and ablation experiments.
In the honeybee the mushroom bodies are prominent neuropil structures arranged as pairs in the dorsal protocerebrum of the brain. Each mushroom body is composed of a medial and a lateral subunit. To understand their development, the proliferation pattern of mushroom body intrinsic cells, the Kenyon cells, were examined during larval and pupal stages using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) technique and chemical ablation with hydroxyurea. By larval stage 1, approximately 40 neuroblasts are located in the periphery of the protocerebrum. Many of these stem cells divide asymmetrically to produce a chain of ganglion mother cells. Kenyon cell precursors underly a different proliferation pattern. With the beginning of larval stage 3, they are arranged in two large distinct cell clusters in each side of the brain. BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA and its immunohistochemical detection show high mitotic activity in these cell clusters that lasts until mid-pupal stages. The uniform diameter of cells, the homogeneous distribution of BrdU-labeled nuclei, and the presence of equally dividing cells in these clusters indicate symmetrical cell divisions of Kenyon cell precursors. Hydroxyurea applied to stage 1 larvae caused the selective ablation of mushroom bodies. Within these animals a variety of defects were observed. In the majority of brains exhibiting mushroom body defects, either one mushroom body subunit on one or on both sides, or three or four subunits (e.g., complete mushroom body ablation) were missing. In contrast, partial ablation of mushroom body subunits resulting in small Kenyon cell clusters and peduncles was observed very rarely. These findings indicate that hydroxyurea applied during larval stage 1 selectively deletes Kenyon stem cells. The results also show that each mushroom body subunit originates from a very small number of stem cells and develops independently of its neighboring subunit. (+info)
Bactericidal effect of 0.95-mW helium-neon and 5-mW indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphate laser irradiation at exposure times of 30, 60, and 120 seconds on photosensitized Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies have demonstrated a bactericidal effect of laser irradiation when lasers with power outputs of (6 mW are directed toward pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria previously treated with a photosensitizing agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the bactericidal capabilities of irradiation from lasers with power outputs of less than 6 mW on photosensitized microorganisms. METHODS: Two bacteria that commonly infect skin lesions, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were used. The 2 lasers used, the 0.95-mW helium -neon laser and the 5-mW indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphate laser, emit light at a wavelength close to the absorption maxima of the sensitizing agent chosen, toluidine blue O. This agent was used because of its proven effectiveness in sensitizing bacteria. For each bacterial strain, toluidine blue O was added to a 108 cells/mL solution until a 0.01% weight/volume ratio was obtained. These mixtures were spread on agar-coated petri dishes, which were then exposed to 1 of the 2 lasers for 30, 60, and 120 seconds. The cultures were then grown overnight and examined for one or more visible zones of inhibition. The areas surrounding the irradiated zone provided a control for the effects of toluidine blue O alone. To determine the effects of laser irradiation without prior toluidine blue O sensitization, separate plates were established using unsensitized bacteria. RESULTS: Although inconsistencies between plates were noted, both lasers produced at least one zone of inhibition in both bacterial species at all 3 time periods. The 5-mW laser, however, produced a greater number of these zones. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Laser-induced microbial killing of photosensitized organisms could have clinical applications in the treatment of infected skin lesions, pending in vivo studies. (+info)
Heterotopic endochondrial ossification with mixed tumor formation in C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice is associated with elevated TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 expression.
Transgenic mice which express the simian virus 40 large T-antigen (Tag) under the regulatory control of the hormone responsive rat C3(1) gene develop unusual lesions of heterotopic bone growth associated with mixed tumor formation arising from eccrine sweat glands found only in the foot pads of mice, ischiocavernosus muscle adjacent to bulbourethral glands and occasionally the salivary and mammary glands. These lesions are very similar to mixed tumors arising in several types of human cancers. Based upon electron microscopic examination and immunocytochemical analyses of cellular differentiation markers, the mixed proliferative lesions in this transgenic mouse model begin with the Tag-induced proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The proliferation of these two types of cells results in hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation of the epithelial component, whereas the proliferating myoepithelial cells undergo metaplasia to form chondrocytes which deposit extracellular matrix, including collagen fibers. Cartilage develops focally between areas of epithelial proliferation and subsequently ossifies through a process of endochondrial bone formation. The metaplasia of myoepithelial cells to chondrocytes appears to require the inductive interaction of factors produced by the closely associated proliferating epithelial cells, including members of the TGF-beta superfamily. We demonstrate that TGF-beta1 protein accumulates in the extracellular matrix of the lesions, whereas RNA in situ hybridization reveals that BMP-2, another strong inducer of heterotopic bone formation, is overexpressed by the proliferating epithelial cells during the development of ectopic bone. The formation of sarcomatous tumors within the mixed tumors appears to be androgen-dependent and more frequent in mice lacking a normal allele of p53. This process of cartilage and bone induction may mimic epithelial-mesenchymal interactions which occur during embryonic bone formation. These transgenic mice may provide new insights into the processes of ectopic endochondrial bone formation associated with mixed tumor formation and serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone disease. (+info)
Toluidine blue O and methylene blue as endothelial redox probes in the intact lung.
There is increasing evidence that the redox activities of the pulmonary endothelial surface may have important implications for the function of both lungs and blood. Because of the inherent complexity of intact organs, it can be difficult to study these activities in situ. Given the availability of appropriate indicator probes, the multiple-indicator dilution (MID) method is one approach for dealing with some aspects of this complexity. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to 1) evaluate the potential utility of two thiazine redox indicators, methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue O (TBO), as MID electron acceptor probes for in situ pulmonary endothelium and 2) develop a mathematical model of the pulmonary disposition of these indicators as a tool for quantifying their reduction on passage through the lungs. Experiments were carried out using isolated rabbit lungs perfused with physiological salt solution with or without plasma albumin over a range of flow rates. A large fraction of the injected TBO disappeared from the perfusate on passage through the lungs. The reduction of its oxidized, strongly polar, relatively hydrophilic blue form to its colorless, highly lipophilic reduced form was revealed by the presence of the reduced form in the venous effluent when plasma albumin was included in the perfusate. MB was also lost from the perfusate, but the fraction was considerably smaller than for TBO. A distributed-in-space-and-time model was developed to estimate the reduction rate parameter, which was approximately 29 and 1.0 ml/s for TBO and MB, respectively, and almost flow rate independent for both indicators. The results suggest the utility particularly of TBO as an electron acceptor probe for MID studies of in situ pulmonary endothelium and of the model for quantitative evaluation of the data. (+info)
123I-antileukoproteinase scintigraphy reveals microscopic cartilage alterations in the contralateral knee joint of rats with "monarticular" antigen-induced arthritis.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the involvement of the contralateral knee joint in monarticular antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) by scintigraphy with the cationic (pI >10), 123I-labeled, serine proteinase inhibitor antileukoproteinase (123I-ALP) and to compare the scintigraphic findings with those of radiography and high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Lewis rats with chronic AIA were examined 2.5 months following arthritis induction (injection of 500 microg of methylated bovine serum albumin/saline into the ipsilateral [arthritic] knee joint and injection of phosphate buffered saline into the contralateral knee joint following systemic immunization). 123I-ALP was injected intravenously into normal rats (n = 4) or rats with AIA (n = 6). The ipsilateral and contralateral knee joints and both ankles were examined by scintigraphy and radiography. Joint cartilage was examined by high-resolution ex vivo MRI, histopathology, and measurement of tissue radioactivity. RESULTS: ALP accumulation (typically observed in normal articular cartilage) was lost in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral knee joints, but not in the clinically unaffected ankles of rats with AIA. In both knee joints, 123I-ALP target:background ratios and cartilage radioactivity correlated negatively with the loss of toluidine blue staining in cartilage, which documents the depletion of charged matrix molecules. Findings of histopathology confirmed mild alterations in the ipsilateral knee joint and even milder alterations in the contralateral knee joint, while the ankles were normal. Radiography and high-resolution ex vivo MRI failed to detect abnormalities in the contralateral knee joint. CONCLUSION: Loss of ALP accumulation appears to document proteoglycan depletion, even in the microscopically altered cartilage of the contralateral knee joint in AIA. These findings underscore the high sensitivity of 123I-ALP for in vivo detection of biochemical cartilage alterations in arthritis, and furthermore, question the use of the contralateral knee joint as a normal control in AIA. (+info)
Effects of singlet oxygen on membrane sterols in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Photodynamic treatment of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the singlet oxygen sensitizer toluidine blue and visible light leads to rapid oxidation of ergosterol and accumulation of oxidized ergosterol derivatives in the plasma membrane. The predominant oxidation product accumulated was identified as 5alpha, 6alpha-epoxy-(22E)-ergosta-8,22-dien-3beta,7a lpha-diol (8-DED). 9(11)-dehydroergosterol (DHE) was identified as a minor oxidation product. In heat inactivated cells ergosterol is photooxidized to ergosterol epidioxide (EEP) and DHE. Disrupted cell preparations of S. cerevisiae convert EEP to 8-DED, and this activity is abolished in a boiled control indicating the presence of a membrane associated enzyme with an EEP isomerase activity. Yeast selectively mobilizes ergosterol from the intracellular sterol ester pool to replenish the level of free ergosterol in the plasma membrane during singlet oxygen oxidation. The following reaction pathway is proposed: singlet oxygen-mediated oxidation of ergosterol leads to mainly the formation of EEP, which is enzymatically rearranged to 8-DED. Ergosterol 7-hydroperoxide, a known minor product of the reaction of singlet oxygen with ergosterol, is formed at a much lower rate and decomposes to give DHE. Changes of physical properties of the plasma membrane are induced by depletion of ergosterol and accumulation of polar derivatives. Subsequent permeation of photosensitizer through the plasma membrane into the cell leads to events including impairment of mitochondrial function and cell inactivation. (+info)
Endochondral bone formation in toothless (osteopetrotic) rats: failures of chondrocyte patterning and type X collagen expression.
The pacemaker of endochondral bone growth is cell division and hypertrophy of chondrocytes. The developmental stages of chondrocytes, characterized by the expression of collagen types II and X, are arranged in arrays across the growth zone. Mutations in collagen II and X genes as well as the absence of their gene products lead to different, altered patterns of chondrocyte stages which remain aligned across the growth plate (GP). Here we analyze GP of rats bearing the mutation toothless (tl) which, apart from bone defects, develop a progressive, severe chondrodystrophy during postnatal weeks 3 to 6. Mutant GP exhibited disorganized, non-aligned chondrocytes and mineralized metaphyseal bone but without cartilage mineralization or cartilaginous extensions into the metaphysis. Expression of mRNA coding for collagen types II (Col II) and X (Col X) was examined in the tibial GP by in situ hybridization. Mutant rats at 2 weeks exhibited Col II RNA expression and some hypertrophied chondrocytes (HC) but no Col X RNA was detected. By 3rd week, HC had largely disappeared from the central part of the mutant GP and Col II RNA expression was present but weak and in 2 separate bands. Peripherally the GP contained HC but without Col X RNA expression. This abnormal pattern was exacerbated by the fourth week. Bone mineralized but cartilage in the GP did not. These data suggest that the tl mutation involves a regulatory function for chondrocyte maturation, including Col X RNA synthesis and mineralization, and that the GP abnormalities are related to the Col X deficiency. The differences in patterning in the tl rat GP compared to direct Col X mutations may be explained by compensatory effects. (+info)