Toll-like receptor-4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction.
TLR4 is a member of the recently identified Toll-like receptor family of proteins and has been putatively identified as Lps, the gene necessary for potent responses to lipopolysaccharide in mammals. In order to determine whether TLR4 is involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway, HEK 293 cells were transiently transfected with human TLR4 cDNA and an NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter plasmid followed by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide/CD14 complexes. The results demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide stimulates NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in cells transfected with the TLR4 gene in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Furthermore, E5531, a lipopolysaccharide antagonist, blocked TLR4-mediated transgene activation in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 approximately 30 nM). These data demonstrate that TLR4 is involved in lipopolysaccharide signaling and serves as a cell-surface co-receptor for CD14, leading to lipopolysaccharide-mediated NF-kappaB activation and subsequent cellular events. (+info
Toll receptor-mediated Drosophila immune response requires Dif, an NF-kappaB factor.
The induction of immunity genes in Drosophila has been proposed to be dependent on Dorsal, Dif, and Relish, the NF-kappaB-related factors. Here we provide genetic evidence that Dif is required for the induction of only a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes. The results show that the presence of Dif without Dorsal is sufficient to mediate the induction of drosomycin and defensin. We also demonstrate that Dif is a downstream component of the Toll signaling pathway in activating the drosomycin expression. These results reveal that individual members of the NF-kappaB family in Drosophila have distinct roles in immunity and development. (+info
Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product.
The human homologue of Drosophila Toll (hToll), also called Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), is a recently cloned receptor of the IL-1/Toll receptor family. Interestingly, the TLR4 gene has been localized to the same region to which the Lps locus (endotoxin unresponsive gene locus) is mapped. To examine the role of TLR4 in LPS responsiveness, we have generated mice lacking TLR4. Macrophages and B cells from TLR4-deficient mice did not respond to LPS. All these manifestations were quite similar to those of LPS-hyporesponsive C3H/HeJ mice. Furthermore, C3H/HeJ mice have, in the cytoplasmic portion of TLR4, a single point mutation of the amino acid that is highly conserved among the IL-1/Toll receptor family. Overexpression of wild-type TLR4 but not the mutant TLR4 from C3H/HeJ mice activated NF-kappaB. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that TLR4 is the gene product that regulates LPS response. (+info
Cutting edge: functional characterization of the effect of the C3H/HeJ defect in mice that lack an Lpsn gene: in vivo evidence for a dominant negative mutation.
A point mutation in the Tlr4 gene, which encodes Toll-like receptor 4, has recently been proposed to underlie LPS hyporesponsiveness in C3H/HeJ mice (Lpsd). The data presented herein demonstrate that F1 progeny from crosses between mice that carry a approximately 9-cM deletion of chromosome 4 (including deletion of LpsTlr4) and C3H/HeJ mice (i.e., Lps0 x Lpsd F1 mice) exhibit a pattern of LPS sensitivity, measured by TNF activity, that is indistinguishable from that exhibited by Lpsn x Lpsd F1 progeny and whose average response is "intermediate" to parental responses. Thus, these data provide clear functional support for the hypothesis that the C3H/HeJ defect exerts a dominant negative effect on LPS sensitivity; however, expression of a normal Toll-like receptor 4 molecule is apparently not required. (+info
Cutting edge: cells that carry A null allele for toll-like receptor 2 are capable of responding to endotoxin.
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the responses of cells to LPS (endotoxin). CD14-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 fibroblasts (CHO/CD14) are exquisitely sensitive to endotoxin. Sequence analysis of CHO-TLR2, compared with human and mouse TLR2, revealed a single base pair deletion. This frameshift mutation resulted in an alternative stop codon, encoding a protein devoid of transmembrane and intracellular domains. CHO-TLR2 cDNA failed to enable LPS signaling upon transient transfection into human epithelial kidney 293 cells. Site-directed mutagenesis of CHO-TLR2 enabled expression of a presumed full-length hamster TLR2 that conferred LPS responsiveness in human epithelial kidney 293 cells. Genomic TLR2 DNA from primary hamster macrophages also contained the frameshift mutation found in CHO fibroblasts. Nevertheless, hamster peritoneal macrophages were found to respond normally to LPS, as evidenced by the induction of cytokines. These results imply that expression of TLR2 is sufficient but not essential for mammalian responses to endotoxin. (+info
MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4.
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens. The TLR4 gene has recently been shown to be mutated in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, both of which are low responders to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR4 may be a long-sought receptor for LPS. However, transfection of TLR4 does not confer LPS responsiveness on a recipient cell line, suggesting a requirement for an additional molecule. Here, we report that a novel molecule, MD-2, is requisite for LPS signaling of TLR4. MD-2 is physically associated with TLR4 on the cell surface and confers responsiveness to LPS. MD-2 is thus a link between TLR4 and LPS signaling. Identification of this new receptor complex has potential implications for understanding host defense, as well as pathophysiologic, mechanisms. (+info
Peptidoglycan- and lipoteichoic acid-induced cell activation is mediated by toll-like receptor 2.
The life-threatening complications of sepsis in humans are elicited by infection with Gram-negative as well as Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major biologically active agent of Gram-negative bacteria, was shown to mediate cellular activation by a member of the human Toll-like receptor family, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Here we investigate the mechanism of cellular activation by soluble peptidoglycan (sPGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), main stimulatory components of Gram-positive bacteria. Like LPS, sPGN and LTA bind to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein CD14 and induce activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in host cells like macrophages. We show that whole Gram-positive bacteria, sPGN and LTA induce the activation of NF-kappaB in HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 but not in cells expressing TLR1 or TLR4. The sPGN- and LTA-induced NF-kappaB activation was not inhibited by polymyxin B, an antibiotic that binds and neutralizes LPS. Coexpression together with membrane CD14 enhances sPGN signal transmission through TLR2. In contrast to LPS signaling, activation of TLR2 by sPGN and LTA does not require serum. These findings identify TLR2 as a signal transducer for sPGN and LTA in addition to LPS. (+info
A single growth cone is capable of integrating simultaneously presented and functionally distinct molecular cues during target recognition.
A variety of cell recognition pathways affect neuronal target recognition. However, whether such pathways can converge at the level of a single growth cone is not well known. The RP3 motoneuron in Drosophila has previously been shown to respond to the muscle cell surface molecules TOLL and fasciclin III (FAS3), which are normally encountered during RP3 pathfinding in a sequential manner. TOLL and FAS3, putative "negative" and "positive" recognition molecules, respectively, affect RP3 antagonistically. Under normal conditions, TOLL and FAS3 together improve the accuracy of its target recognition. Here, we show that, when presented with concurrent TOLL and FAS3 expression, RP3 responds to both, integrating their effects. This was demonstrated most succinctly by single cell visualization methods. When a balance in relative expression levels between the two antagonistic cues is achieved, the RP3 growth cone exhibits a phenotype virtually identical to that seen when neither TOLL nor FAS3 is misexpressed. Thus, growth cones are capable of quantitatively evaluating distinct recognition cues and integrating them to attain a net result, in effect responding to the "balance of power" between positive and negative influences. We suggest that the ability to integrate multiple recognition pathways in real-time is one important way in which an individual growth cone interprets and navigates complex molecular environments. (+info