Functional analysis of TRAIL receptors using monoclonal antibodies.
mAbs were generated against the extracellular domain of the four known TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors and tested on a panel of human melanoma cell lines. The specificity of the mAb permitted a precise evaluation of the TRAIL receptors that induce apoptosis (TRAIL-R1 and -R2) compared with the TRAIL receptors that potentially regulate TRAIL-mediated apoptosis (TRAIL-R3 and -R4). Immobilized anti-TRAIL-R1 or -R2 mAbs were cytotoxic to TRAIL-sensitive tumor cells, whereas tumor cells resistant to recombinant TRAIL were also resistant to these mAbs and only became sensitive when cultured with actinomycin D. The anti-TRAIL-R1 and -R2 mAb-induced death was characterized by the activation of intracellular caspases, which could be blocked by carbobenzyloxy-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) and carbobenzyloxy-Ile-Glu(OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zIETD-fmk). When used in solution, one of the anti-TRAIL-R2 mAbs was capable of blocking leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R2-expressing cells and prevented TRAIL-induced death of these cells, whereas two of the anti-TRAIL-R1 mAbs could inhibit leucine zipper-human TRAIL binding to TRAIL-R1:Fc. Furthermore, use of the blocking anti-TRAIL-R2 mAb allowed us to demonstrate that the signals transduced through either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 were necessary and sufficient to mediate cell death. In contrast, the expression of TRAIL-R3 or TRAIL-R4 did not appear to be a significant factor in determining the resistance or sensitivity of these tumor target cells to the effects of TRAIL. (+info)
Involvement of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been identified as a member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells, but its physiological functions are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of TRAIL in human CD4+ T cell clones by utilizing newly established anti-human TRAIL mAbs. Human CD4+ T cell clones, HK12 and 4HM1, exhibited perforin-independent and Fas ligand (FasL)-independent cytotoxicity against certain target cells, including T lymphoma (Jurkat) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines, which are susceptible to TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast to FasL, the expression of which was inducible upon anti-CD3 stimulation, TRAIL was constitutively expressed on HK12 and 4HM1 cells, and no further increase was observed after anti-CD3 stimulation. Spontaneous cytotoxic activities of resting HK12 and 4HM1 cells against Jurkat and HaCaT cells were blocked by anti-TRAIL mAb but not by anti-FasL mAb, and bystander cytotoxic activities of anti-CD3-stimulated HK12 and 4HM1 cells were abolished by the combination of anti-TRAIL and anti-FasL mAbs. These results indicate a differential regulation of TRAIL and FasL expression on human CD4+ T cell clones and that TRAIL constitutes an additional pathway of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (+info)
JNK/SAPK activity contributes to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
We report here that JNK/SAPKs are activated by TRAIL in parallel to induction of apoptosis in human T and B cell lines. Death signaling as well as JNK/SAPK activation by TRAIL in these cells is FADD- and caspase-dependent since dominant-negative FADD or the caspase inhibitor zVAD prevented both, apoptosis and JNK/SAPK activity. JNK/SAPK activity in response to triggering of CD95 by an agonistic antibody (alphaAPO-1) was also diminished by dominant-negative FADD or zVAD. Correspondingly, a cell line resistant to alphaAPO-1-induced death exhibited crossresistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and did not upregulate JNK/SAPK activity in response to TRAIL or alphaAPO-1. Inhibition of JNK/SAPK activity, by stably transfecting cells with a dominant-negative JNKK-MKK4 construct, reduced apoptosis in response to TRAIL or alphaAPO-1. Therefore, activation of JNK/SAPKs by TRAIL or alphaAPO-1 occurs downstream of FADD and caspases and contributes to apoptosis in human lymphoid cell lines. (+info)
Monocyte-mediated tumoricidal activity via the tumor necrosis factor-related cytokine, TRAIL.
TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a molecule that displays potent antitumor activity against selected targets. The results presented here demonstrate that human monocytes rapidly express TRAIL, but not Fas ligand or TNF, after activation with interferon (IFN)-gamma or -alpha and acquire the ability to kill tumor cells. Monocyte-mediated tumor cell apoptosis was TRAIL specific, as it could be inhibited with soluble TRAIL receptor. Moreover, IFN stimulation caused a concomitant loss of TRAIL receptor 2 expression, which coincides with monocyte acquisition of resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These results define a novel mechanism of monocyte-induced cell cytotoxicity that requires TRAIL, and suggest that TRAIL is a key effector molecule in antitumor activity in vivo. (+info)
Type I interferons (IFNs) regulate tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression on human T cells: A novel mechanism for the antitumor effects of type I IFNs.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a proapoptotic member of the TNF family of type II membrane proteins, which constitutes one component of T cell cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of TRAIL in human peripheral blood T (PBT) cells. Although freshly isolated PBT cells did not express a detectable level of TRAIL on their surface, a remarkable TRAIL expression was rapidly induced on the surface of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) PBT cells upon stimulation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and type I interferons (IFNs). This enhancement of TRAIL expression was a unique feature of type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta), and neither type II IFN (IFN-gamma) nor various other cytokines enhanced TRAIL expression on anti-CD3-stimulated PBT cells. Type I IFNs have been used for clinical treatment of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and we found that most RCC cell lines were susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Type I IFNs substantially augmented cytotoxic activity of anti-CD3-stimulated PBT cells against RCC cell lines in a TRAIL-dependent manner. These results indicate a unique feature of type I IFNs to regulate TRAIL-mediated T cell cytotoxicity, which may be involved in the antitumor effects of type I IFNs against various tumors. (+info)
Sensitization of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma cells to Apo-2 ligand-induced apoptosis by actinomycin D.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent malignancy associated with HIV infection (AIDS-KS), a complication that leads to high mortality and morbidity. AIDS-KS cells are resistant to killing by chemotherapeutic drugs/NK cells and Fas-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the acquisition of antiapoptotic characteristics by AIDS-KS cells may contribute to their prolonged survival. Apo-2 ligand (Apo-2L)/TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, a new member of the TNF family, has been identified as an apoptosis-inducing molecule. In this study we examined the sensitivity of 10 different AIDS-KS isolates to Apo-2L-mediated cytotoxicity. AIDS-KS cells were relatively resistant to Apo-2L; however, Apo-2L and actinomycin D (Act D) used in combination synergistically potentiated the induction of cell death in nine of the 10 isolates. Apo-2L induced apoptosis in >80% of AIDS-KS cells pretreated with Act D. The caspase inhibitors, zIETD-fmk and zDEVD-fmk, inhibited apoptosis in AIDS-KS by sApo-2L, suggesting that caspase 3-like and caspase 8 or 10 activities are essential for Apo-2L-mediated apoptosis. Act D treatment of AIDS-KS cells markedly and selectively down-regulated Bcl-xL expression, while the expressions of decoy receptors 1 and 2, Bax, cellular FLICE (Fas-associated death domain protein-like IL-1-converting enzyme) inhibitory protein, FADD (Fas-associated death domain protein), procaspase 8, and p53 were not affected. These findings suggest the possible involvement of Bcl-xL in Act D-induced sensitization of AIDS-KS cells to Apo-2L-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, Act D did not sensitize PBMC or fibroblast cells to Apo-2L. Thus, Apo-2L and Act D used in combination may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of AIDS-KS. (+info)
TRAIL (Apo-2L) and TRAIL receptors in human placentas: implications for immune privilege.
Mechanisms accounting for protection of the fetal semiallograft from maternal immune cells remain incompletely understood. In other contexts, interactions between TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo-2L) and its receptors kill activated lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the potential of the TRAIL/TRAIL-R system to protect the placenta against immune cell attack. Analysis by Northern blotting demonstrated mRNAs encoding TRAIL as well as the four TRAIL receptors (DR4, DR5, DcR1/TRID, DcR2/TRUNDD) in human placentas. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated that TRAIL protein is prominent in syncytiotrophoblast, an uninterrupted placental cell layer that is continuously exposed to maternal blood, as well as in macrophage-like placental mesenchymal cells (Hofbauer cells). Studies on cell lines representing trophoblasts (Jar, JEG-3 cells) and macrophages (U937, THP-1 cells) showed that both lineages contained TRAIL mRNA and that steady state levels of transcripts were increased 2- to 11-fold by IFN-gamma. By contrast, cell lineage-specific differences were observed in expression of the TRAIL-R genes. Although all four lines contained mRNA encoding the apoptosis-inducing DR5 receptor, only trophoblast cells contained mRNA encoding the DcR1 decoy receptor and only macrophages contained DcR2 decoy receptor transcripts. DR4 mRNA was present only in THP-1 cells and was the only TRAIL-R transcript increased by IFN-gamma. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that the two trophoblast cell lines were resistant, whereas the two macrophage lines were partially susceptible to killing by rTRAIL. Collectively, the results are consistent with a role for the TRAIL/TRAIL-R system in the establishment of placental immune privilege. (+info)
CD95 ligand (Fas-L/APO-1L) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand mediate ischemia-induced apoptosis in neurons.
Programmed cell death plays an important role in the neuronal degeneration after cerebral ischemia, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we examined, in vivo and in vitro, whether ischemia-induced neuronal death involves death-inducing ligand/receptor systems such as CD95 and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). After reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in adult rats, both CD95 ligand and TRAIL were expressed in the apoptotic areas of the postischemic brain. Further recombinant CD95 ligand and TRAIL proteins induced apoptosis in primary neurons and neuron-like cells in vitro. The immunosuppressant FK506, which most effectively protects against ischemic neurodegeneration, prevented postischemic expression of these death-inducing ligands both in vivo and in vitro. FK506 also abolished phosphorylation, but not expression, of the c-Jun transcription factor involved in the transcriptional control of CD95 ligand. Most importantly, in lpr mice expressing dysfunctional CD95, reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in infarct volumes significantly smaller than those found in wild-type animals. These results suggest an involvement of CD95 ligand and TRAIL in the pathophysiology of postischemic neurodegeneration and offer alternative strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular brain disease. (+info)