Comparative molecular genetic profiles of anaplastic astrocytomas/glioblastomas multiforme and their subsequent recurrences.
Malignant glial tumors (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme) arise mostly either from the progression of low grade precursor lesions or rapidly in a de novo fashion and contain distinct genetic alterations. There is, however, a third subset of malignant gliomas in which genetic lesions remain to be identified. Following surgical resection, all gliomas appear to have an inherent tendency to recur. Comparative molecular analysis of ten primary malignant gliomas (three anaplastic astrocytomas and seven glioblastomas multiforme) with their recurrences identified two distinct subgroups of recurrent tumors. In one group, primary tumors harbored genetic aberrations frequently associated with linear progression or de novo formation pathways of glial tumorigenesis and maintained their genetic profiles upon recurrence. In the other subset with no detectable known genetic mutations at first presentation, the recurrent tumors sustained specific abnormalities associated with pathways of linear progression or de novo formation. These included loss of genes on chromosomes 17 and 10, mutations in the p53 gene, homozygous deletion of the DMBTA1 and p16 and/ or p15 genes and amplification and/or overexpression of CDK4 and alpha form of the PDGF receptor. Recurrent tumors from both groups also displayed an abnormal expression profile of the metalloproteinase, gel A, and its inhibitor, TIMP-2, consistent with their highly invasive behavior. Delineation of the molecular differences between malignant glioblastomas and their subsequent recurrences may have important implications for the development of rational clinical approaches for this neoplasm that remains refractory to existing therapeutic modalities. (+info)
Extracellular matrix remodelling in the endometrium and its possible relevance to the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Essential features of endometrial physiology involve the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the pathogenesis of endometriosis, interactions of endometriosis cells with ECM can be postulated. Two systems of secreted proteases in the endometrium, the plasmin(ogen) activator/inhibitor and the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors were examined in cell cultures of uterine endometrial cells from women with and without endometriosis. Soluble urokinase receptor secretion is increased, and mRNA transcription of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is upregulated by progestin in endometriosis. These findings are compatible with an altered ECM turnover in the endometrium of these patients that may explain a higher invasive potential of retrogradely menstruated endometrial fragments. (+info)
Luteinization and proteolysis in ovarian follicles of Meishan and Large White gilts during the preovulatory period.
This experiment was conducted to determine why follicles luteinize faster in the Meishan breed than in the Large White breed of pig. Follicles were recovered during the late follicular phase from ovaries of both breeds before and after administration of hCG given to mimic the LH surge. First, the patterns of cholesterol transporters (high and low density lipoproteins: HDL and LDL) were compared. Cholesterol transporters detected in follicular fluid consisted of HDL only. Similar amounts of Apolipoprotein A-I were found in all samples. There was no obvious breed effect on minor lipoproteins found in the HDL-rich fraction, and this pattern was altered similarly by hCG in the two breeds. The LDL-rich samples of serum from both breeds contained similar amounts of protein. Second, three steroidogenic enzymes, adrenodoxin, 17 alpha-hydroxylase-lyase (P450(17) alpha) and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantified by image analysis on sections of the two largest follicles. Before hCG treatment, theca interna cells demonstrated immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin (strong), P450(17) alpha and 3 beta-HSD (very strong), whereas granulosa cells displayed immunoreactivities for adrenodoxin only. After hCG treatment, the localization of the enzymes was unchanged but the staining intensity of adrenodoxin on granulosa cells and 3 beta-HSD on theca cells increased (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Breed effects were detected for the amounts of adrenodoxin in theca cells (Meishan > Large White; P < 0.05) and of 17 alpha-hydroxylase (Large White > Meishan, P < 0.01). Breed x treatment interactions were never detected. Finally, gelatinases, plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were visualized by direct or reverse zymography or western blotting. Whatever the stage relative to LH administration, follicular fluid from Large White gilts contained more TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). No breed effect was detected for the amounts of gelatinases and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. However, for these parameters, a significant breed x time interaction was obvious, as the Meishan follicles had a greater response to hCG (P < 0.01). Since proteolysis plays a key role in the bioavailability of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta, which have the ability to alter gonadotrophin-induced progesterone production in pigs, the differences observed in its control in the present study may explain, at least in part, the different patterns of luteinization observed in Meishan and Large White follicles. (+info)
Serum gelatinase B, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal clinical and MRI study.
Metalloproteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. We report longitudinal serum levels of gelatinase B and of the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP), TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, in 21 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Patients had monthly clinical and gadolinium-enhanced MRI follow-up for 10 months. Longitudinal samples in nine healthy controls and cross-sectional samples from 12 patients with inflammatory CNS disease and 15 patients with other neurological diseases were used for comparison. Average serum gelatinase B, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients and those with other neurological diseases than in healthy controls. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, gelatinase B levels were significantly higher during clinical relapse compared with periods of clinical stability. Multiple sclerosis patients with high mean serum gelatinase B levels had significantly more T1-weighted gadolinium-enhancing MRI lesions than those with mean levels within the control range. TIMP-1 levels were not different during relapse and between relapses. There was a trend for TIMP-2 levels to be lower during relapse compared with non-relapse periods. For similar levels of serum gelatinase B, associated TIMP-1 levels were significantly lower and TIMP-2 levels significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the inflammatory CNS control group. We propose that an abnormality in the inhibitory response to metalloproteinases may play an aetiological role in the chronicity of multiple sclerosis. (+info)
Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during murine chorioallantoic placenta maturation.
A large body of experimental evidence supports the participation of two groups of extracellular proteases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and plasminogen activators/plasmin, in tissue remodeling in physiological and pathological invasion. In the late mouse placenta, several tissue remodeling and cell invasion processes take place. Spongiotrophoblast migration into maternal decidua, as well as decidual extracellular matrix remodeling require the coordinated action of extracellular proteolytic enzymes. Via Northern and in situ hybridization, we have analyzed the spatio-temporal expression patterns of members of the MMP family (stromelysin-3, gelatinases A and B), as well as their inhibitors TIMP-1, -2 and -3 in late murine placenta (days 10.5 to 18.5 of gestation). Gelatinase activity in placental extracts was assessed by substrate zymography. Gelatinase A and stromelysin-3 were found to be prominently expressed in decidual tissue; shortly after midpregnancy, the decidual expression patterns of gelatinase A and stromelysin-3 became overlapping with each other, as well as with the expression domain of TIMP-2. On the other hand, gelatinase B transcripts were expressed only by trophoblast giant cells at day 10.5, and were downregulated at later stages. TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 transcripts were detected in decidual periphery at day 10.5, while later the expression was restricted to the endometrial stroma and spongiotrophoblasts, respectively. The areas of stromelysin-3 expression were the same (giant trophoblasts) or adjacent (decidua) to those where urokinase (uPA) transcripts were detected, suggesting a possible cooperation between these proteinases in placental remodeling. We generated mice doubly deficient for stromelysin-3 and uPA, and report here that these mice are viable and fertile. Furthermore, these animals do not manifest obvious placental abnormalities, thereby suggesting the existence of compensatory/redundant mechanisms involving other proteolytic enzymes. Our findings document the participation of MMPs and their inhibitors in the process of late murine placenta maturation, and warrant the characterization of other members of the MMP family, like membrane type-MMPs, in this process. (+info)
Reactive site-modified tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 inhibits the cell-mediated activation of progelatinase A.
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is supposed to play a regulatory role in the cell-mediated activation of progelatinase A. To investigate the mechanism of the regulation, we prepared and characterized a chemically modified TIMP-2, and examined its effects on the activation of progelatinase A. We found that treatment of TIMP-2 with cyanate ion led to loss of inhibitory activity toward matrilysin or gelatinase A. Structural and functional analyses of the modified TIMP-2 showed that carbamylation of the alpha-amino group of the NH2-terminal Cys1 of TIMP-2 led to complete loss of the inhibitory activity. When the reactive-site modified TIMP-2 was added to culture medium of concanavalin A-stimulated HT1080 cells, the conversion of endogenous progelatinase A to the intermediate form was partially inhibited, whereas that of the intermediate form to the mature one was strongly inhibited. The reactive site-modified TIMP-2 also prevented an accumulation of active gelatinase A on the cell surface. We speculate that occupation of the hemopexin-like domain of gelatinase A by the reactive site-modified TIMP-2 makes it unable for gelatinase A to be retained on the cell surface, thus preventing the autocatalytic conversion of the intermediate form of gelatinase A to its mature form. (+info)
Ovarian carcinoma regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase through beta1 integrin.
Culturing DOV 13 ovarian carcinoma cells on three-dimensional collagen lattice but not on thin-layer collagen induces processing of promatrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 to a M(r) 62,000 form, suggesting that multivalent integrin aggregation may participate in proteinase regulation. To address the role of collagen-binding integrins in this event, we treated DOV 13 cells with soluble beta1 integrin antibodies (clones P4C10 or 21C8) or beta1 integrin antibodies immobilized on latex beads to promote integrin aggregation. Divalent ligation of beta1 integrins with soluble P4C10 antibodies stimulated expression of pro-MMP-2 and its inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, whereas soluble 21C8 antibodies had no effect. Aggregation of beta1 integrins with immobilized 21C8 or P4C10 antibodies stimulated MMP-dependent pro-MMP-2 activation and accumulation of a M(r) 43,000 form of membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), a cell surface activator of pro-MMP-2, in cell extracts. beta1 integrin-mediated MMP-2 activation required protein synthesis and tyrosine kinase signaling and was reduced by an inhibitor of gene transcription. Treatment of control cells with concanavalin A stimulated MMP-dependent pro-MMP-2 activation and accumulation of M(r) 55,000 and 43,000 forms of MT1-MMP in cell extracts. Addition of either the MMP inhibitor GM-6001-X or exogenous tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 to concanavalin A-treated cells resulted in loss of the M(r) 43,000 form of MT1-MMP and accumulation of the M(r) 55,000 form of the enzyme in cell extracts, suggesting that the M(r) 43,000 form is a product of MMP-dependent M(r) 55,000 MT1-MMP proteolysis. Together, these data suggest that beta1 integrin stimulation of pro-MMP-2 activation involves MT1-MMP posttranslational processing and requires multivalent integrin aggregation. (+info)
Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases prevents allergen-induced airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma.
Although matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been reported to play crucial roles in the migration of inflammatory cells through basement membrane components in vitro, the role of MMPs in the in vivo accumulation of the cells to the site of inflammation in bronchial asthma is still obscure. In this study, we investigated the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, using a murine model of allergic asthma. In this model, we observed the increase of the release of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after Ag inhalation in the mice sensitized with OVA, which was accompanied by the infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Administration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 to airways inhibited the Ag-induced infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils to airway wall and lumen, reduced Ag-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and increased the numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The inhibition of cellular infiltration to airway lumen was observed also with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. These data suggest that MMPs, especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, are crucial for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the induction of airway hyperresponsiveness, which are pathophysiologic features of bronchial asthma, and further raise the possibility of the inhibition of MMPs as a therapeutic strategy of bronchial asthma. (+info)