Determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in various matrices by atomic absorption spectrometry using a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction procedure.
An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in two certified reference materials, food samples, and petroleum crude. After treatment with acids, these elements are separated from matrix elements by simultaneous solvent extraction of 5,5'-methylenedisalicylohydroxamic acid complexes from HCl/NaClO4 solution into an isobutyl methyl ketone/tributyl phosphate solution. The detection limits range from 0.018 to 0.19 microg/mL (n = 3), and the relative standard deviations do not exceed 2.0% at levels of 0.5, 0.6, 2.0, and 7.0 microg/mL of Fe, Mo, V, and Sn, respectively. The method is selective and suffers only from interference by Zr(IV), Ti(IV), Th(IV), W(VI), PO4(3-), and F-. (+info)
Adhesion of adhesive resin to dental precious metal alloys. Part I. New precious metal alloys with base metals for resin bonding.
New dental precious metal alloys for resin bonding without alloy surface modification were developed by adding base metals (In, Zn, or Sn). Before this, binary alloys of Au, Ag, Cu, or Pd containing In, Zn, or Sn were studied for water durability and bonding strength with 4-META resin. The adhesion ability of the binary alloys was improved by adding In equivalent to 15% of Au content, Zn equivalent to 20% of Ag content, and In, Zn, or Sn equivalent to 5% of Cu content. There was no addition effect of the base metals on Pd, however 15% of In addition improved adhesion with Pd-based alloys containing equi-atomic % of Cu and Pd. The alloy surfaces were analyzed by XPS and showed that oxides such as In2O3, ZnO, or SnO play an important role in improving the adhesive ability of the alloys. (+info)
Structural characterization of a bridged 99Tc-Sn-dimethylglyoxime complex: implications for the chemistry of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals prepared by the Sn (II) reduction of pertechnetate.
Reduction of pertechnetate by tin(II) in the presence of dimethylglyoxime is shown, by single crystal x-ray analysis, to yield a technetium-tin-dimethylglyoxime complex in which tin and technetium are intimately connected by a triple bridging arrangement. One bridge consists of a single oxygen atom and it is hypothesized that this bridge arises from the inner sphere reduction of technetium by tin(II), the electrons being transferred through a technetium "yl" oxygen which eventually becomes the bridging atom. Two additional bridges arise from two dimethylglyoxime ligands that function as bidentate nitrogen donors towards Tc and monodentate oxygen donors towards Sn. The tin atom can thus be viewed as providing a three-pronged "cap" on one end of the Tc-dimethylglyoxime complex. The additional coordination sites around Tc are occupied by the two nitrogens of a third dimethylglyoxime ligand, making the Tc seven-coordinate. The additional coordination sites around Sn are occupied by three chloride anions, giving the Sn a fac octahedral coordination environment. From indirect evidence the oxidation states of tin and technetium are tentatively assigned to be IV and V, respectively. Since most 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals are synthesized by the tin(II) reduction of pertechnetate, it is likely that the Sn-O-Tc linkage described in this work is an important feature of the chemistry of these species. This linkage also provides a ready rationale for the close association of tin and technetium observed in many 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals. (+info)
Considerations in the selection of radiopharmaceuticals for palliation of bone pain from metastatic osseous lesions.
Bone pain is a common complication for terminal patients with bone metastases from prostate, lung, breast, and other malignancies. A multidisciplinary approach in treating bone pain is generally required, 1 which includes a combination of analgesic drug therapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy. Over the years, treatment of bone pain using bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been explored extensively. Pharmaceuticals labeled with energetic 1-particle emitters such as 32p, 89Sr, 153Sm, and 186Re, in addition to the low-energy electron emitter 117mSn, have been studied for this purpose. Bone-marrow toxicity as a consequence of chronic irradiation by the energetic , particles is a general problem associated with this form of treatment. It is therefore desirable to identify radiochemicals that minimize the dose to the bone marrow and at the same time deliver therapeutic doses to the bone. METHODS: New S values (mean absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) for target regions of human bone and marrow were used to ascertain the capacity of various radiochemicals to deliver a high bone dose while minimizing the marrow dose. The relative dosimetric advantage of a given radiopharmaceutical compared with a reference radiochemical was quantitated as a dosimetric relative advantage factor (RAF). Several radionuclides that emit energetic 1 particles (32p, 89Sr, 153Sm, 186Re, and 177Lu) and radionuclides that emit low-energy electrons or beta particles (169Er, 117mSn, and 33p) were evaluated. For these calculations, ratios of the cumulated activity in the bone relative to cumulated activity in the marrow alpha equal to 10 and 100 were used. RESULTS: When the radiopharmaceutical was assumed to be uniformly distributed in the endosteum and alpha was taken as 100 for both the reference and test radiochemicals, the RAF values compared with the reference radionuclide 32p were 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.9, and 2.0 for 89Sr, 186Re, 153Sm, 177Lu, 169Er, 117mSn, and 33P, respectively. In contrast, when the radiopharmaceutical is assumed to be uniformly distributed in the bone volume, the RAF values for these 7 radionuclides were 1.1, 1.5, 2.4, 3.2, 4.5, 5.1, and 6.5, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that low-energy electron emitters such as 117mSn and 33P are more likely to deliver a therapeutic dose to the bone while sparing the bone marrow than are energetic beta emitters such as 32p and 89Sr. Therefore, radiochemicals tagged with low-energy electron or beta emitters are the radiopharmaceuticals of choice for treatment of painful metastatic disease in bone. (+info)
Development of metal-resin composite restorative material. Part 2. Effects of acid and heat treatments of silver-tin filler particles on flexural properties of metal-resin composite.
The effects of acid and heat treatments of silver-tin filler particles on the flexural properties of metal-resin composite restorative materials were investigated. Five metal-resin composite restorative materials containing different silver-tin filler particles treated under different conditions were experimentally prepared. The conditions of the alloy particles were; 1) as atomized (NT), 2) 1.8% HCl acid-treated (AT), 3) heat-treated at 150 degrees C for 5 min after AT (A15), 4) heat-treated at 200 degrees C for 5 min after AT (A20) and 5) heat-treated at 250 degrees C for 5 min after AT (A25). The flexural strength and the flexural modulus of elasticity were measured for the five metal-resin composites to evaluate the effects of the acid and heat treatments. The flexural strength of the prepared composites was significantly influenced by the surface condition of the filler particles (p < 0.01), and increased significantly when the as atomized particles (NT) were acid-treated (AT) or acid- and heat-treated at 150 degrees C (A15), but then significantly decreased as the heat treatment temperature increased (A20 and A25). The strength of the A15 composite was significantly higher than those of the other composites, and exceeded that (about 60 MPa) of the previous composite with no treatment. No significant difference was found in the flexural modulus of the composites. (+info)
Metal-resin composite restorative material using powder-liquid system.
In order to further improve the mechanical properties of a metal-resin composite and avoid the problems which were found in the previous metal-resin composite using a 2-paste system, another type of metal-resin composite using a powder-liquid system was developed. In the new system 4-META treatment was carried out at low temperature and DMPT was separated from the 4-META treated particles. The efficacy of this system as well as the effects of 4-META concentration, duration of 4-META treatment (immersion time) and filler content on the flexural properties, working time and setting time were investigated. The flexural strength of the powder-liquid composite was significantly affected by two main factors, immersion time and filler content, and the other properties (flexural modulus, working time and setting time) were by all three main factors. The highest flexural strength of the prepared composite was 91.8 MPa, which was higher than that of the 2-paste composite (64.0 MPa) by about 43%. This was achieved at a 0.1 ratio of 4-META concentration, 30 s immersion time and 94 mass% filler content. The working time and setting time ranged between 2.3-13.6 min and 4.2-20.1 min, respectively, and those of the highest strength composite were 3.0 and 5.2, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that the powder-liquid system is effective to improve the properties of the metal-resin composite. (+info)
Development of metal-resin composite restorative materia. Part 1. Experimental composite using silver-tin alloy as filler and 4-META as coupling agent.
Metal-resin composites, using metal particles instead of inorganic particles as the filler and 4-META as the coupling agent, were experimentally prepared under 20 different conditions (five different concentrations of 4-META, and four different contents of metal particles). The flexural strength of the prepared metal-resin composites was in the range of about 14.5-61.3 MPa. The flexural strength was significantly influenced by the 4-META concentration, the metal particle content and their interaction. The highest strength was estimated at 2-3 mass% of 4-META concentration and 92.0-93.5 mass% metal filler content. The flexural modulus of the metal resin composite ranged approximately from 7.8 GPa to 15.5 GPa. The flexural modulus of the metal resin composite significantly increased with the metal particle content. The effect of the 4-META concentration on the flexural modulus was not significant. (+info)
Serum carotenoids are associated with increased lung cancer risk among alcohol drinkers, but not among non-drinkers in a cohort of tin miners.
To examine the association between pre-diagnostic serum carotenoid levels and lung cancer risk and the effects of alcohol intake on the carotenoid-lung cancer relationship, we conducted a case-control study in an occupational cohort from the Yunnan Tin Corporation in China. During 6 years of follow-up, 339 cases of confirmed lung cancer were diagnosed. Among these cases, those who donated pre-diagnostic blood (n = 108) were eligible for this study. For each case, two individuals alive and free of cancer at the time of case diagnosis, matched on age, sex, and date of blood collection, were selected as controls. Serum beta-carotene (odds ratios (ORs) for tertiles: 1, 1.3, 2.0) and beta-cryptoxanthin (ORs for tertiles: 1, 1.8, 2.9) levels were positively associated with lung cancer risk after adjustment for tobacco use and radon exposure. Among alcohol drinkers, higher serum carotenoid levels were significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (alpha-carotene OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.4, beta-carotene OR 7.6, 95% CI 3.1-18.6, lutein/zeaxanthin OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-6.6 and beta-cryptoxanthin OR 7.6, 95% CI 2.7-21.5). Conversely, risk estimates among non-drinkers suggest a possible protective association for higher carotenoid levels. (+info)