Recognition and management of Tourette's syndrome and tic disorders. (1/76)

Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome are conditions that primary care physicians are likely to encounter. Up to 20 percent of children have at least a transient tic disorder at some point. Once believed to be rare, Tourette's syndrome is now known to be a more common disorder that represents the most complex and severe manifestation of the spectrum of tic disorders. Tourette's syndrome is a chronic familial disorder with a fluctuating course; the long-term outcome is generally favorable. Although the exact underlying pathology has yet to be determined, evidence indicates a disorder localized to the frontal-subcortical neural pathways. Tourette's syndrome is commonly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, behavior problems and learning disabilities. These comorbid conditions make the management of Tourette's syndrome more challenging. Management of Tourette's syndrome should include timely and accurate diagnosis, education, and behavior or pharmacologic interventions. Use of neuroleptic medications and dopamine D2 antagonist drugs can be effective but may be associated with significant side effects.  (+info)

Parent perceptions of symptom severity in Tourette's syndrome. (2/76)

The families of 66 consecutive children with Tourette's syndrome were surveyed for their perception of symptom significance using a questionnaire. Families considered attention deficit and learning difficulties to be most significant, while motor and vocal tics were least important. When present, episodic rage was the most impairing symptom. Physicians must be aware of the significance of these comorbid symptoms for patients with Tourette's syndrome.  (+info)

Adult onset tic disorders. (3/76)

BACKGROUND: Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders. OBJECTIVE: To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare clinical characteristics between groups of patients, and to call attention to this potentially disabling and underrecognised neurological disorder. METHODS: Using a computerised database, all patients with tic disorders who presented between 1988 and 1998 to the movement disorders clinic at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center after the age of 21 were identified. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographic information, age of onset of tics, tic phenomenology, distribution, the presence of premonitory sensory symptoms and tic suppressibility, family history, and associated psychiatric features. These patients' videotapes were reviewed for diagnostic confirmation and information was obtained about disability, course, and response to treatment in a structured follow up interview. RESULTS: Of 411 patients with tic disorders in the database, 22 patients presented for the first time with tic disorders after the age of 21. In nine patients, detailed questioning disclosed a history of previous childhood transient tic disorder, but in 13 patients, the adult onset tic disorder was new. Among the new onset cases, six patients developed tics in relation to an external trigger, and could be considered to have secondary tic disorders. The remaining patients had idiopathic tic disorders. Comparing adult patients with recurrent childhood tics and those with new onset adult tics, the appearance of the tic disorder, the course and prognosis, the family history of tic disorder, and the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder were found to be similar. Adults with new onset tics were more likely to have a symptomatic or secondary tic disorder, which in this series was caused by infection, trauma, cocaine use, and neuroleptic exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Adult onset tic disorders represent an underrecognised condition that is more common than generally appreciated or reported. The clinical characteristics of adults newly presenting to a movement disorder clinic with tic disorders are reviewed, analysed, and discussed in detail. Clinical evidence supports the concept that tic disorders in adults are part of a range that includes childhood onset tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome.  (+info)

Significant linkage for Tourette syndrome in a large French Canadian family. (4/76)

Family and twin studies provide strong evidence that genetic factors are involved in the transmission of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and related psychiatric disorders. To detect the underlying susceptibility gene(s) for TS, we performed linkage analysis in one large French Canadian family (127 members) from the Charlevoix region, in which 20 family members were definitely affected by TS and 20 others showed related tic disorders. Using model-based linkage analysis, we observed a LOD score of 3.24 on chromosome 11 (11q23). This result was obtained in a multipoint approach involving marker D11S1377, the marker for which significant linkage disequilibrium with TS recently has been detected in an Afrikaner population. Altogether, 25 markers were studied, and, for level of significance, we derived a criterion that took into account the multiple testing arising from the use of three phenotype definitions and three modes of inheritance, a procedure that yielded a LOD score of 3.18. Hence, even after adjustment for multiple testing, the present study shows statistically significant evidence for genetic linkage with TS.  (+info)

Bereitschaftspotential in tic disorders: a preliminary observation. (5/76)

Sensory phenomena in tic disorders such as Tourette's syndrome are known but are substantiated by only a handful of studies. In this preliminary report, we studied premonitory urge, a type of sensory phenomenon in three patients of tic disorders. Bereitschaftspotential, a movement-related cognitive potential indicative of motor preparation, was assessed in these patients. As bereitschaftspotential was observed in all our cases prior to occurrence of tics, it is speculated that tics are not entirely involuntary but are quasi-volitional in nature. Bereitschaftspotential may thus represent a neurophysiological marker of premonitory urge in tic disorders. Implications of exploring the voluntary nature of tics are discussed.  (+info)

Prevalence of tic disorders among primary school students in the city of Pavia, Italy. (6/76)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tic disorders in children varies from 1% to 29% depending on the characteristics of the study population, the diagnostic criteria, and the study design and methods. AIMS: To calculate the prevalence of tic disorders among primary school children in Italy. METHODS: The study population comprised 2347 primary school children from the city of Pavia (pop. 80 073), Northern Italy. Using trained school teachers as the source of cases, all children with motor or vocal tics occurring intermittently and unpredictably out of a background of normal motor activity were accepted. The type, frequency, and circumstances of tic disorders were noted. School performance was correlated to the presence of tics. RESULTS: A total of 68 children (56 boys, 12 girls) aged 6-11 years were identified with tic disorders. The period prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.7). The prevalence was 4.4% in boys and 1.1% in girls, with no detectable trends at age 6-11. Motor tics were present in 46 cases, vocal tics in 6, and motor and vocal tics in 16. Situation related tics were noted in 37 cases. A significant correlation was found between the presence of tic disorders and impaired school performance. DISCUSSIONS: Tic disorders are a fairly uncommon but disabling clinical disorder among primary school children from an urban community. The fairly low prevalence of this clinical condition, as compared to other reports, can be explained by the choice of stringent diagnostic criteria and the exclusion of patients with other movement disorders.  (+info)

Eye movement tics. (7/76)

An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics.  (+info)

Anti-basal ganglia antibodies: a possible diagnostic utility in idiopathic movement disorders? (8/76)

BACKGROUND: The spectrum of post-streptococcal brain disorders includes chorea, tics, and dystonia. The proposed mediators of disease are anti-basal ganglia (neuronal) antibodies (ABGA). AIM: To evaluate ABGA as a potential diagnostic marker in a cohort of UK post-streptococcal movement disorders. METHODS: Forty UK children presenting with movement disorders associated with streptococcal infection were recruited. ABGA was measured using ELISA and Western immunoblotting. To determine ABGA specificity and sensitivity, children with neurological diseases (n = 100), children with uncomplicated streptococcal infection (n = 40), and children with autoimmune disease (n = 50) were enrolled as controls. RESULTS: The mean ELISA result was increased in the post-streptococcal movement disorder group compared to all controls and derived a sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 79%. The Western immunoblotting method to detect ABGA derived a sensitivity and specificity of 92.5% and 94.7% respectively. There was common binding to basal ganglia antigens of 40, 45, and 60 kDa. Immunofluorescence localised the antibody binding to basal ganglia neurones. CONCLUSION: ABGA appears to be a potentially useful diagnostic marker in post-streptococcal neurological disorders. Western immunoblotting appears to be the preferred method due to good sensitivity and specificity and the ability to test several samples at once.  (+info)