Nutritional and health status of Tibetan children living at high altitudes.
BACKGROUND: Children living at high altitudes often have delayed growth, but whether growth retardation is related to altitude or to other factors is not known. METHODS: A multicultural health care team assessed 2078 Tibetan children 0 to 84 months of age for anthropometric and clinical signs of malnutrition. The children lived in 11 counties, which contained more than 50 diverse urban and nonurban (nomadic, agricultural, or periurban) communities in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The height and weight of the children were compared with those of U.S. children. Height and weight were expressed as z scores (the number of standard deviations from the median of the age- and sex-specific reference group). RESULTS: The mean z score for height fell from -0.5 to -1.6 in the first 12 months of life and generally ranged from -2.0 to -2.4 in older children. Overall, of 2078 children, 1067 (51 percent) had moderately or severely stunted growth, as defined by a z score of -2.0 or lower. Of the 1556 children 24 months of age or older, 871 (56 percent) had stunted growth, which was severe (z score, -3.0 or lower) in 380 (24 percent). Among the children in this age group, 787 of the 1313 nonurban children (60 percent) had stunting, as compared with 84 of the 243 urban children (35 percent). Stunting was associated with clinical conditions such as rickets, abdominal distention, hair depigmentation, and skin lesions and with a maternal history of hepatitis or goiter. Stunting was not associated with altitude, after adjustment for the type of community. CONCLUSIONS: In Tibetan children, severe stunting due to malnutrition occurs early in life, and morbidity is high. (+info)
Prolyl endopeptidase inhibitors from the underground part of Rhodiola sachalinensis.
The methanolic extract of the underground part of Rhodiola sachalinensis was found to show inhibitory activity on prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC. 188.8.131.52), an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of proline-containing neuropeptidase which is recognized to be involved in learning and memory. From the MeOH extract, five new monoterpenoids named sachalinols A (24), B (25) and C (26) and sachalinosides A (23) and B (27) were isolated, together with twenty-two known compounds, gallic acid (1), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid (2), p-tyrosol (3), salidroside (4), 6n-O-galloylsalidroside (5), benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 2-phenylethyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), trans-cinnamyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), rosarin (9), rhodiocyanoside A (10), lotaustralin (11), octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (12), 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (13), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14), kaempferol (15), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), rhodionin (18), rhodiosin (19), (-)-epigallocatechin (20), 3-O-galloylepigallocatechin-(4-->8)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (21) and rosiridin (22). Among these, nineteen compounds other than 3, 4 and 9 have been isolated for the first time from R. sachalinensis, and six (6, 8, 13, 16, 17, 20) are isolated from Rhodiola plants for the first time. Among them, six compounds (13, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22) showed noncompetitive inhibition against Flavobacterium PEP, with an IC50 of 0.025, 0.17, 22, 41, 0.44 and 84 microM, respectively. (+info)
A-6G variant of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension in Han, Tibetan, and Yi populations.
To investigate the relationship between the A-6G variant in the promoter of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension in Han, Tibetan, and Yi populations. All patients with essential hypertension were selected by WHO criteria. And the polymorphism of the A-6G variant was determined by PCR/RFLP. The data were analyzed by t test and chi2 test. There was no significant difference in the genotype or allele frequencies between normotensives and hypertensives in the Han, Tibetan, and Yi populations, respectively. However, when the subjects were divided into male and female subgroups, the genotype distributions among hypertensives and normotensives of the Tibetan female group were as follows: AA, 37% vs. 48%; AG, 52% vs. 48%; GG, 11% vs. 4%, respectively and the frequency of the G allele was significantly higher in hypertensives than in normotensives in the Tibetan female group (0.37 vs. 0.28, chi2=4.25, p<0.05). In addition, we observed that there was a significant difference between the Han and Tibetan normotensive groups in the distributions of the allele and genotype frequencies of the A-6G variant. The frequency of the G allele was 0.29 and 0.17 in the Tibetan normotensive and Han groups, respectively (p<0.001). The G allele of the A-6G variant was associated with hypertension in the Tibetan females, but not in the Yi or Han females. And we confirmed that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of the allele frequencies of the A-6G variant between the Han and Tibetan normotensive groups. (+info)
Phylogenetic relationships among wild and cultivated Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert.) populations revealed by AFLP analyses.
Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated landraces and natural populations of wild subspecies of Tartary buckwheat were investigated at the individual level by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seven individuals from seven cultivated landraces and 35 individuals from 21 natural populations of wild subspecies were utilized for AFLP analyses. Three groups were recognized: (1) all cultivated landraces and wild subspecies from northern Pakistan, central and eastern Tibet, and northwestern Yunnan, (2) wild subspecies from central and southern Sichuan, (3) wild subspecies from northern Sichuan and eastern Tibet. It was concluded that cultivated Tartary buckwheat probably originated in eastern Tibet or northwestern Yunnan in China. (+info)
Kashin-Beck disease: a historical overview.
In 1919, the first report on Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) made by a Japanese doctor described an endemic occurrence in the northern district of Korea. In the 1930s, Dr. Takamori and his colleagues at Manchuria Medical College produced a series of reports on its endemiology, clinical and roentgenological findings observed in the north-eastern district of China. In 1940s, a Tokyo University group led by Dr. Ogata found that the salivary glands of KBD patients were markedly degenerated. Administration of the condensed water taken from the endemic area into experimental rats produced degeneration of the salivary glands and changes in bones and joints similar to those of KBD. Thus, they proposed parotin deficiency theory as the etiology of KBD, and they recommended parotin therapy for KBD in its early stage. In the 1950s, Dr. Takizawa and his colleagues at Chiba University demonstrated that ferulic acid and p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, found in the drinking water in the endemic area, caused degeneration of the salivary gland in rats. They recommended boiling the drinking water or using activated charcoal for the prevention of KBD. In the 1970s, the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare made a nationwide survey for the incidence of KBD in Japan. They concluded that there was no case of KBD in Japan with the exception of a few patients who had been brought up in the northeastern district of China and later had moved to Japan. (+info)
Anthropometry and clinical features of Kashin-Beck disease in central Tibet.
We compared two different populations living in central Tibet with the purpose of establishing standard values for different anthropometric parameters in a rural population. Later on, these values were used as references for a similar study on a KBD population. One group (KBD) (n=1,246) came from the endemic areas, and the other group, serving as the control population (n=815), came from non-endemic areas. Both groups included children and adults and were of the Mongoloid type; they were farmers or semi-nomads. Height, weight, segment length, joint perimeter, joint diameter, joint movement were recorded. Also more subjective information such as general feeling of tiredness, rapid fatigue at work, work limitation, joint pain, muscle weakness, muscular atrophy, dwarfism, flatfoot, and waddling gate was also collected. Those variables were compared between the two groups. (+info)
The anatomical distribution of radiological abnormalities in Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet.
A radiological study of osteoarticular changes in Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) was undertaken on the appendicular skeleton in 105 patients with KBD, in 31 healthy subjects living in an endemic area and in 30 healthy subjects living in a non-endemic area. The bone age was delayed in all three populations with no significant difference between the three studied Tibetan populations. Radiological changes occur in 56% of patients with KBD, and are usually bilateral. An analysis of the distribution of lesions shows a proximo-distal gradient. The changes are more common in the distal aspect of the limb and the lower limb is involved more commonly than the upper limb. The foot and ankle are involved in 89.5% of cases. The radiological changes and their distribution might be explained by the hypothesis of inhibition of angiogenesis by mycotoxins, exacerbated by chemical and physical environmental factors. (+info)
A 4-year study of the mycological aspects of Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet.
In order to clarify the association between mycotoxin-producing fungi in food and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), we examined the occurrence and contamination levels of fungi in samples of barley grain, from KBD-affected families and from unaffected families in endemic areas. A control area without the occurrence of KBD served as reference. The first results obtained in 1995 showed that total mesophilic fungal contamination of barley grain was consistently higher in families with KBD. Trichothecium roseum (Pers) Link ex gray, Dreschlera Ito and Alternaria Nees ex Fr. were the three most common fungi significantly associated with KBD. In 1996 we again observed a significant difference between affected and non-affected families, especially with Trichothecium roseum and Ulocladium Preuss. On this basis, measures to prevent KBD were suggested and a preventive program has been set up since 1998 in 20 new villages. (+info)