(1/2453) Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors.
The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells. (+info)
(2/2453) Identification of a cAMP response element within the glucose- 6-phosphatase hydrolytic subunit gene promoter which is involved in the transcriptional regulation by cAMP and glucocorticoids in H4IIE hepatoma cells.
The expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the human glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was stimulated by both dexamethasone and dibutyryl cAMP in H4IIE hepatoma cells. A cis-active element located between nucleotides -161 and -152 in the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter was identified and found to be necessary for both basal reporter-gene expression and induction of expression by both dibutyryl cAMP and dexamethasone. Nucleotides -161 to -152 were functionally replaced by the consensus sequence for a cAMP response element. An antibody against the cAMP response element-binding protein caused a supershift in gel-electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays using an oligonucleotide probe representing the glucose 6-phosphatase gene promoter from nucleotides -161 to -152. These results strongly indicate that in H4IIE cells the glucose 6-phosphatase gene-promoter sequence from -161 to -152 is a cAMP response element which is important for the regulation of transcription of the glucose 6-phosphatase gene by both cAMP and glucocorticoids. (+info)
(3/2453) Modulation of the cytotoxicity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and methotrexate after transduction of folate receptor cDNA into human cervical carcinoma: identification of a correlation between folate receptor expression and thymidine kinase activity.
Cervical carcinoma is an AIDS-defining illness. The expression of folate receptors (FRs) in cervical carcinoma (HeLa-IU1) cells was modulated by stable transduction of FR cDNA encapsidated in recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 in the sense and antisense orientation (sense and antisense cells, respectively). Although sense cells proliferated slower than antisense or untransduced cells in vivo and in vitro in 2% (but not 10%) FCS, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA was significantly increased in sense cells in 10% serum; therefore, the basis for this discrepancy was investigated. The activity of thymidine kinase (TK) was subsequently directly correlated with the extent of FR expression in single cell-derived clones of transduced cells. This elevated TK activity was not a result of recruitment of the salvage pathway based on the presence of adequate dTTP pools, normal thymidylate synthase (TS) activity, persistence of increased thymidine incorporation despite the exogenous provision of excess 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, and documentation of adequate folates in sense cells. The increase in TK activity conferred significant biological properties to sense cells (but not antisense or untransduced cells) as demonstrated by augmented phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and concomitantly greater sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of AZT. Conversely, sense cells were highly resistant to methotrexate, but this was reversed by the addition of AZT. The direct correlation of FR expression and TK activity indicates a previously unrecognized consequence of FR overexpression. (+info)
(4/2453) Elevated serum thymidine kinase levels identify a subgroup at high risk of disease progression in early, nonsmoldering chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) shows a remarkably heterogeneous clinical outcome; survival ranges from several months in advanced stages to more than 10 years in early stages. The Binet and Rai staging systems distinguish three major prognostic subgroups, but do not accurately predict the individual risk of disease progression in early CLL (Binet stage A or Rai stage 0 to II). Because most newly diagnosed CLL patients present with early disease, it seems desirable to search for additional prognostic factors to identify early CLL patients at high risk of rapid progression. It has been shown that elevated serum thymidine kinase (s-TK) levels predict disease progression in CLL. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prognostic value of s-TK in 122 previously untreated patients with Binet stage A CLL (mean age +/- SD, 58.7 +/- 8.5 years). In univariate analyses, 18 of the 22 parameters investigated predicted progression-free survival (PFS). In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, only three parameters provided independent prognostic information on PFS: s-TK greater than 7.1 U/L; presence of lymphadenopathy; and white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 75, 000/microL. When added to the classification of smoldering versus nonsmoldering CLL, s-TK levels separated two groups within the group of nonsmoldering stage A patients: patients with s-TK values greater than 7.1 U/L had a median PFS of 8 months, whereas patients with s-TK values = 7.1 U/L expected a much longer PFS (49 months; P <. 001), similar to smoldering CLL (42 months). The results demonstrate that s-TK is a prognostic parameter that adds independent prognostic information to the definitions of smoldering and nonsmoldering CLL in Binet stage A. (+info)
(5/2453) Imaging adenoviral-directed reporter gene expression in living animals with positron emission tomography.
We are developing quantitative assays to repeatedly and noninvasively image expression of reporter genes in living animals, using positron emission tomography (PET). We synthesized positron-emitting 8-[18F]fluoroganciclovir (FGCV) and demonstrated that this compound is a substrate for the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase enzyme (HSV1-TK). Using positron-emitting FGCV as a PET reporter probe, we imaged adenovirus-directed hepatic expression of the HSV1-tk reporter gene in living mice. There is a significant positive correlation between the percent injected dose of FGCV retained per gram of liver and the levels of hepatic HSV1-tk reporter gene expression (r2 > 0.80). Over a similar range of HSV1-tk expression in vivo, the percent injected dose retained per gram of liver was 0-23% for ganciclovir and 0-3% for FGCV. Repeated, noninvasive, and quantitative imaging of PET reporter gene expression should be a valuable tool for studies of human gene therapy, of organ/cell transplantation, and of both environmental and behavioral modulation of gene expression in transgenic mice. (+info)
(6/2453) Use of the Gal4-UAS technique for targeted gene expression in the zebrafish.
The most common way to analyze the function of cloned genes in zebrafish is to misexpress the gene product or an altered variant of it by mRNA injection. However, mRNA injection has several disadvantages. The GAL4-UAS system for targeted gene expression allows one to overcome some of these disadvantages. To test the GAL4-UAS system in zebrafish, we generated two different kinds of stable transgenic lines, carrying activator and effector constructs, respectively. In the activator lines the gene for the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 is under the control of a given promoter, while in the effectors the gene of interest is fused to the sequence of the DNA-binding motif of GAL4 (UAS). Crosses of animals from the activator and effector lines show that effector genes are transcribed with the spatial pattern of the activators. This work smoothes the way for a novel method of misexpression of gene products in zebrafish in order to analyze the function of genes in developmental processes. (+info)
(7/2453) Staurosporine blocked normal cells at G1/S boundary.
AIM: To reveal the regulating difference of G1/S-phase transition between normal and tumor cells by using staurosporine, an unspecific kinase inhibitor. METHODS: Flow cytometry, Dot blot, kinase activity assay, and electrophoresis. RESULTS: A 18-h treatment with staurosporine (5 micrograms.L-1) blocked normal cell line 2BS cells (normal human embryonic lung fibroblast, 5-20 passages) in G1 phase, decreased their thymidine kinase (TK) mRNA level and activity, and also dephosphorylated an intracellular 107 kDa protein. Meanwhile, all these effects in 2BS cells disappeared only by washing staurosporine away. Such kind of effects did not occur in tumor cell line BGC-823 cells (human stomach cancer cell). CONCLUSION: During the period of G1/S-phase transition, the kinases involved are more sensitive to staurosporine in normal cells than in tumor cells. (+info)
(8/2453) Intronless mRNA transport elements may affect multiple steps of pre-mRNA processing.
We have reported recently that a small element within the mouse histone H2a-coding region permits efficient cytoplasmic accumulation of intronless beta-globin cDNA transcripts. This sequence lowers the levels of spliced products from intron-containing constructs and can functionally replace Rev and the Rev-responsive element (RRE) in the nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1-related mRNAs. In work reported here, we further investigate the molecular mechanisms by which this element might work. We demonstrate here through both in vivo and in vitro assays that, in addition to promoting mRNA nuclear export, this element acts as a polyadenylation enhancer and as a potent inhibitor of splicing. Surprisingly, two other described intronless mRNA transport elements (from the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and hepatitis B virus) appear to function in a similar manner. These findings prompt us to suggest that a general feature of intronless mRNA transport elements might be a collection of phenotypes, including the inhibition of splicing and the enhancement of both polyadenylation and mRNA export. (+info)