(1/774) Effect of intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leg compression on incidence of postoperative pulmonary embolism.
The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was measured in 50 matched pairs of patients undergoing common surgical procedures with preoperative and postoperative ventilation-perfusion lung scans and the fibrinogen uptake test. One patient in each pair was treated with intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leggings. The incidence of pulmonary embolism among the treated patients was significantly reduced from 24% to 8%, but the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly reduced (34% to 24%). (+info)
(2/774) The intrarenal vascular lesions associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome.
Even 10 yr after the identification of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in the course of APS is still relatively unrecognized, and is probably underestimated. The association of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or lupus anticoagulant with the development of a vaso-occlusive process involving numerous organs is now confirmed. In a multicenter study, 16 cases of "primary" APS (PAPS) were found and followed for 5 yr or more, all with renal biopsy. In all 16 cases of PAPS, there was a vascular nephropathy characterized by small vessel vaso-occlusive lesions associated with fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries (12 patients), recanalizing thrombi in arteries and arterioles (six patients), and focal cortical atrophy (10 patients). In combination, these led to progressive destruction of the kidney, accelerated by acute glomerular and arteriolar microangiopathy in five patients. Focal cortical atrophy is a distinctive lesion, present in 10 biopsies, and likely represents the histologic and functional renal analogue to the multiple cerebral infarcts detected on imaging studies. The clinical hallmark of this vascular nephropathy in PAPS is systemic hypertension, only variably associated with renal insufficiency, proteinuria, or hematuria. The ensemble of histologic renal lesions defined in this study should aid in the separation of the lesions found in cases of secondary APS, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, into those lesions related to APS and those related to the underlying disease. (+info)
(3/774) Thrombophilia as a multigenic disease.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Venous thrombosis is a common disease annually affecting 1 in 1000 individuals. The multifactorial nature of the disease is illustrated by the frequent identification of one or more predisposing genetic and/or environmental risk factors in thrombosis patients. Most of the genetic defects known today affect the function of the natural anticoagulant pathways and in particular the protein C system. This presentation focuses on the importance of the genetic factors in the pathogenesis of inherited thrombophilia with particular emphasis on those defects which affect the protein C system. INFORMATION SOURCES: Published results in articles covered by the Medline database have been integrated with our original studies in the field of thrombophilia. STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVES: The risk of venous thrombosis is increased when the hemostatic balance between pro- and anti-coagulant forces is shifted in favor of coagulation. When this is caused by an inherited defect, the resulting hypercoagulable state is a lifelong risk factor for thrombosis. Resistance to activated protein C (APC resistance) is the most common inherited hypercoagulable state found to be associated with venous thrombosis. It is caused by a single point mutation in the factor V (FV) gene, which predicts the substitution of Arg506 with a Gln. Arg506 is one of three APC-cleavage sites and the mutation results in the loss of this APC-cleavage site. The mutation is only found in Caucasians but the prevalence of the mutant FV allele (FV:Q506) varies between countries. It is found to be highly prevalent (up to 15%) in Scandinavian populations, in areas with high incidence of thrombosis. FV:Q506 is associated with a 5-10-fold increased risk of thrombosis and is found in 20-60% of Caucasian patients with thrombosis. The second most common inherited risk factor for thrombosis is a point mutation (G20210A) in the 3' untranslated region of the prothrombin gene. This mutation is present in approximately 2% of healthy individuals and in 6-7% of thrombosis patients, suggesting it to be a mild risk factor of thrombosis. Other less common genetic risk factors for thrombosis are the deficiencies of natural anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin, protein C or protein S. Such defects are present in less than 1% of healthy individuals and together they account for 5-10% of genetic defects found in patients with venous thrombosis. Owing to the high prevalence of inherited APC resistance (FV:Q506) and of the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene, combinations of genetic defects are relatively common in the general population. As each genetic defect is an independent risk factor for thrombosis, individuals with multiple defects have a highly increased risk of thrombosis. As a consequence, multiple defects are often found in patients with thrombosis. (+info)
(4/774) Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion.
We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation and had a functional protein S deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies. The impairment of the protein C pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein C system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs. (+info)
(5/774) Incidence of deep vein thrombosis and leg oedema in patients with strokes.
In a series of 26 patients with strokes 13 had deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the leg, demonstrated by fibrinogen scanning. In 10 patients the thrombosis was in the paralysed leg but the degree of paralysis was unrelated to the tendency to develop DVT, which usually occurred about the third day. Leg oedema in 10 patients was unrelated to the DVT. (+info)
(6/774) Usefulness of D-dimer, blood gas, and respiratory rate measurements for excluding pulmonary embolism.
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of the SimpliRED D-dimer test, arterial oxygen tension, and respiratory rate measurement for excluding pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: Lung scans were performed in 517 consecutive medical inpatients with suspected acute PE over a one year period. Predetermined end points for objectively diagnosed PE in order of precedence were (1) a post mortem diagnosis, (2) a positive pulmonary angiogram, (3) a high probability ventilation perfusion lung scan when the pretest probability was also high, and (4) the unanimous opinion of an adjudication committee. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was diagnosed by standard ultrasound and venography. RESULTS: A total of 40 cases of PE and 37 cases of DVT were objectively diagnosed. The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding objectively diagnosed PE was 0.99 (error rate 2/249), that of PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg (10.7 kPa) was 0.97 (error rate 5/160), and that of a respiratory rate of < or = 20/min was 0.95 (error rate 14/308). The best combination of findings for excluding PE was a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 > or = 80 mm Hg, which gave a predictive value of 1.0 (error rate 0/93). The predictive value of a negative SimpliRED test for excluding VTE was 0.98 (error rate 5/249). CONCLUSIONS: All three of these observations are helpful in excluding PE. When any two parameters were normal, PE was very unlikely. In patients with a negative SimpliRED test and PaO2 of > or = 80 mm Hg a lung scan is usually unnecessary. Application of this approach for triage in the preliminary assessment of suspected PE could lead to a reduced rate of false positive diagnoses and considerable resource savings. (+info)
(7/774) Effect of prolonged infusion on vein calibre: a prospective study.
Infusion thrombophlebitis is common and is the principal limitation to intravenous nutrition (IVN) via a peripheral vein, yet its precise pathogenesis is unclear. Prospective observations were performed on patients in whom a hypertonic, acidic, nutritional emulsion was infused via fine-bore polyurethane catheters placed in peripheral veins. B mode ultrasound was used to determine vein calibre and proved to be a useful means for serial examination during intravenous infusion. Contrary to previous reports, no evidence of venospasm was observed. It is suggested that previous evidence of venoconstriction is erroneous and that other mechanisms are responsible for thrombophlebitis. (+info)
(8/774) Combined oral contraceptives, smoking, and cardiovascular risk.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess age specific incidence and mortality of stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with use of modern low dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) and the interaction with smoking. DESIGN: Hospital-based case-control study. SETTING: Hospitals in Oxford region in the United Kingdom, which covered a defined population, during the period 1989-1993. METHODS: Relative risk estimates from the WHO Collaborative Study and observed incidence rates from the Oxford region were used to estimate age specific incidence of each disease among women without cardiovascular risk factors and model total cardiovascular incidence and mortality. RESULTS: Among women who did not use OCs, smoke nor had any other cardiovascular risk factors, total incidence of stroke and AMI were less than 2 events per 100,000 woman years in those aged 20-24 years and rose exponentially with age to 8 events per 100,000 among women aged 40-44 years. Incidence of idiopathic VTE among women who did not use OCs rose linearly with age (from 3.3 per 100,000 at ages 20-24 years to 5.8 per 100,000 at ages 40-44 years). The increased risk of idiopathic VTE associated with OC use among non-smokers constituted over 90% of all cardiovascular events for women aged 20-24 years and more than 60% in those aged 40-44 years. Fatal cardiovascular events were dominated by haemorrhagic stroke and AMI, and among OC users who smoked these two diseases accounted for 80% of cardiovascular deaths among women aged 20-24 years, rising to 97% among those aged 40-44 years. Cardiovascular mortality associated with smoking was greater than that associated with OC use at all ages. Attributable risk associated with OC use was 1 death per 370,000 users annually among women aged 20-24 years, 1 per 170,000 at ages 30-34 years, and 1 per 37,000 at ages 40-44 years. Among smokers, the cardiovascular mortality attributable to OC use was estimated to be about 1 per 100,000 users annually among women aged less than 35 years, and about 1 per 10,000 users annually among those above the age of 35 years. CONCLUSION: The incidence of fatal cardiovascular events among women aged less than 35 years is low. The VTE risk associated with OC use is the largest contributor to OC induced adverse effects. The potentially avoidable excess VTE risk associated with the newer progestogens desogestrel and gestodene would account for a substantial proportion of total cardiovascular morbidity in this age group. For women over age 35 years the absolute risks associated with OC use and smoking are greater because of the steeply rising incidence of arterial diseases. The combination of smoking and OC use among such women is associated with particularly increased risks. Any potential reduction in AMI or stroke risk with use of third generation OCs would be a more important consideration among older compared with younger women, particularly if they smoke. However, the mortality associated with smoking is far greater than that associated with OC use (of any type) at all ages. (+info)