(1/136) Single atom modification (O-->S) of tRNA confers ribosome binding.
Escherichia coli tRNALysSUU, as well as human tRNALys3SUU, has 2-thiouridine derivatives at wobble position 34 (s2U*34). Unlike the native tRNALysSUU, the full-length, unmodified transcript of human tRNALys3UUU and the unmodified tRNALys3UUU anticodon stem/loop (ASLLys3UUU) did not bind AAA- or AAG-programmed ribosomes. In contrast, the completely unmodified yeast tRNAPhe anticodon stem/loop (ASLPheGAA) had an affinity (Kd = 136+/-49 nM) similar to that of native yeast tRNAPheGmAA (Kd = 103+/-19 nM). We have found that the single, site-specific substitution of s2U34 for U34 to produce the modified ASLLysSUU was sufficient to restore ribosomal binding. The modified ASLLysSUU bound the ribosome with an affinity (Kd = 176+/-62 nM) comparable to that of native tRNALysSUU (Kd = 70+/-7 nM). Furthermore, in binding to the ribosome, the modified ASLLys3SUU produced the same 16S P-site tRNA footprint as did native E. coli tRNALysSUU, yeast tRNAPheGmAA, and the unmodified ASLPheGAA. The unmodified ASLLys3UUU had no footprint at all. Investigations of thermal stability and structure monitored by UV spectroscopy and NMR showed that the dynamic conformation of the loop of modified ASLLys3SUU was different from that of the unmodified ASLLysUUU, whereas the stems were isomorphous. Based on these and other data, we conclude that s2U34 in tRNALysSUU and in other s2U34-containing tRNAs is critical for generating an anticodon conformation that leads to effective codon interaction in all organisms. This is the first example of a single atom substitution (U34-->s2U34) that confers the property of ribosomal binding on an otherwise inactive tRNA. (+info)
(2/136) Kinetics of oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic thiols by myeloperoxidase compounds I and II.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the most abundant protein in neutrophils and plays a central role in microbial killing and inflammatory tissue damage. Because most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drugs contain a thiol group, it is necessary to understand how these substrates are oxidized by MPO. We have performed transient kinetic measurements to study the oxidation of 14 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and dithiols by the MPO intermediates, Compound I (k3) and Compound II (k4), using sequential mixing stopped-flow techniques. The one-electron reduction of Compound I by aromatic thiols (e.g. methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine) varied by less than a factor of seven (between 1.39 +/- 0.12 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 9.16 +/- 1.63 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), whereas reduction by aliphatic thiols was demonstrated to depend on their overall net charge and hydrophobic character and not on the percentage of thiol deprotonation or redox potential. Cysteamine, cysteine methyl ester, cysteine ethyl ester and alpha-lipoic acid showed k3 values comparable to aromatic thiols, whereas a free carboxy group (e.g. cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione) diminished k3 dramatically. The one-electron reduction of Compound II was far more constrained by the nature of the substrate. Reduction by methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine showed second-order rate constants (k4) of 1.33 +/- 0.08 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), 5.25 +/- 0.07 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.03 +/- 0.07 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1). Even at high concentrations cysteine, penicillamine and glutathione could not reduce Compound II, whereas cysteamine (4.27 +/- 0.05 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine methyl ester (8.14 +/- 0.08 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine ethyl ester (3.76 +/- 0.17 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) and alpha-lipoic acid (4.78 +/- 0.07 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) were demonstrated to reduce Compound II and thus could be expected to be oxidized by MPO without co-substrates. (+info)
(3/136) The preparation and properties of 4-thiouridine containing 2'-5' and 3'-5' dinucleoside monophosphates.
2'-5' and 3'-5' dinucleoside monophosphates containing 4-thiouridine were prepared by the thiolation of the cytosine containing compounds and purified by chromatography on a DEAE-Sephadex column. The chromatographic and optical properties of the isomers are compared. (+info)
(4/136) Investigation of the recognition of an important uridine in an internal loop of a hairpin ribozyme prepared using post-synthetically modified oligonucleotides.
We introduced 4-thio- ((4S)U), 2-thio- ((2S)U), 4- O -methyluridine ((4Me)U) and cytidine substitutions for U+2, which is an important base for cleavage in a substrate RNA. Oligonucleotides containing 4-thio- and 4- O -methyluridine were prepared by a new convenient post-synthetic modification method using a 4- O - p -nitrophenyl-uridine derivative. A hairpin ribozyme cleaved the substrate RNA with either C+2, (4S)U+2 or (4Me)U+2 at approximately 14-, 6- and 4-fold lower rates, respectively, than that of the natural substrate. In contrast, the substrate with a (2S)U+2 was cleaved with the same activity as the natural substrate. These results suggest that the O4 of U+2 is involved in hydrogen bonding at loop A, but the O2 of U+2 is not recognized by the active residues. Circular dichroism data of the ribozymes containing (4S)U+2 and (2S)U+2, as well as the susceptibility of the thiocarbonyl group to hydrogen peroxide, suggest that a conformational change of U+2 occurs during the domain docking in the cleavage reaction. We propose here the conformational change of U+2 from the ground state to the active molecule during the reaction. (+info)
(5/136) Using genomic information to investigate the function of ThiI, an enzyme shared between thiamin and 4-thiouridine biosynthesis.
The gene thiI encodes a protein (ThiI) that plays a role in the transfer of sulfur from cysteine to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine, but the reaction catalyzed by ThiI remains undetermined. Based upon sequence alignments, ThiI shares a unique "P-loop" motif with the PPi synthetase family, four enzymes that catalyze adenylation and subsequent substitution of carbonyl oxygens. To test whether or not this motif is critical for ThiI function, the Asp in the motif was converted to Ala (D189A), and a screen for in vivo 4-thiouridine production revealed the altered enzyme to be inactive. Further scrutiny of sequence data and the crystal structures of two members of the PPi synthetase family implicated Lys321 in the proposed adenylation function of ThiI, and the critical nature of Lys321 has been demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis and genetic screening. Our results, then, indicate that ThiI catalyzes the adenylation of a substrate at the expense of ATP, a narrowing of possible reactions that provides a strong new basis for deducing the early steps in the transfer of sulfur from cysteine to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine. (+info)
(6/136) Interaction of the yeast DExH-box RNA helicase prp22p with the 3' splice site during the second step of nuclear pre-mRNA splicing.
Using site-specific incorporation of the photo-chemical cross-linking reagent 4-thiouridine, we demonstrate the previously unknown association of two proteins with yeast 3' splice sites. One of these is an unidentified approximately 122 kDa protein that cross-links to 3' splice sites during formation of the pre--spliceosome. The other factor is the DExH-box RNA helicase, Prp22p. With substrates functional in the second step of splicing, only very weak cross-linking of Prp22p to intron sequences at the 3' splice site is observed. In contrast, substrates blocked at the second step exhibit strong cross-linking of Prp22 to intron sequences at the 3' splice site, but not to adjacent exon sequences. In vitro reconstitution experiments also show that the association of Prp22p with intron sequences at the 3' splice site is dependent on Prp16p and does not persist when release of mature mRNA from the spliceosome is blocked. Taken together, these results suggest that the 3' splice site of yeast introns is contacted much earlier than previously envisioned by a protein of approximately 120 kDa, and that a transient association of Prp22p with the 3' splice site occurs between the first and second catalytic steps. (+info)
(7/136) Evidence that ThiI, an enzyme shared between thiamin and 4-thiouridine biosynthesis, may be a sulfurtransferase that proceeds through a persulfide intermediate.
ThiI is an enzyme common to the biosynthetic pathways leading to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine in tRNA. Comparison of the ThiI sequence with protein sequences in the data bases revealed that the Escherichia coli enzyme contains a C-terminal extension displaying sequence similarity to the sulfurtransferase rhodanese. Cys-456 of ThiI aligns with the active site cysteine residue of rhodanese that transiently forms a persulfide during catalysis. We investigated the functional importance of this sequence similarity and discovered that, like rhodanese, ThiI catalyzes the transfer of sulfur from thiosulfate to cyanide. Mutation of Cys-456 to alanine impairs this sulfurtransferase activity, and the C456A ThiI is incapable of supporting generation of 4-thiouridine in tRNA both in vitro and in vivo. We therefore conclude that Cys-456 of ThiI is critical for activity and propose that Cys-456 transiently forms a persulfide during catalysis. To accommodate this hypothesis, we propose a general mechanism for sulfur transfer in which the terminal sulfur of the persulfide first acts as a nucleophile and is then transferred as an equivalent of S(2-) rather than S(0). (+info)
(8/136) Evidence for the transfer of sulfane sulfur from IscS to ThiI during the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine in Escherichia coli tRNA.
IscS from Escherichia coli is a cysteine desulfurase that has been shown to be involved in Fe-S cluster formation. The enzyme converts L-cysteine to L-alanine and sulfane sulfur (S(0)) in the form of a cysteine persulfide in its active site. Recently, we reported that IscS can donate sulfur for the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine (s(4)U), a modified nucleotide in tRNA. In addition to IscS, s(4)U synthesis in E. coli also requires the thiamin biosynthetic enzyme ThiI, Mg-ATP, and L-cysteine as the sulfur donor. We now report evidence that the sulfane sulfur generated by IscS is transferred sequentially to ThiI and then to tRNA during the in vitro synthesis of s(4)U. Treatment of ThiI with 5-((2-iodoacetamido)ethyl)-1-aminonapthalene sulfonic acid (I-AEDANS) results in irreversible inhibition, suggesting the presence of a reactive cysteine that is required for binding and/or catalysis. Both ATP and tRNA can protect ThiI from I-AEDANS inhibition. Finally, using gel shift and protease protection assays, we show that ThiI binds to unmodified E. coli tRNA(Phe). Together, these results suggest that ThiI is a recipient of S(0) from IscS and catalyzes the ultimate sulfur transfer step in the biosynthesis of s(4)U. (+info)