The in vivo pharmacological profile of CS-747, a novel antiplatelet agent with platelet ADP receptor antagonist properties. (57/1894)

1. CS-747 is a novel antiplatelet agent that generates an active metabolite, R-99224, in vivo. CS-747 itself was totally inactive in vitro. This study examined in vivo pharmacological profiles of CS-747 after single oral administration to rats. 2. Orally administered CS-747 (0.3 - 10 mg kg(-1)) partially but significantly decreased [(3)H]-2-methylthio-ADP binding to rat platelets. CS-747 (3 mg kg(-1), p.o.) treatment neutralized ADP-induced decreases of cyclic AMP concentrations induced by prostaglandin E(1), suggesting that metabolites of CS-747 interfere with G(i)-linked P2T receptor. 3. CS-747 (0.3 and 3 mg kg(-1), p.o.) markedly inhibited ex vivo washed platelet aggregation in response to ADP but not to thrombin. CS-747 also exhibited a marked inhibition of ADP-induced ex vivo platelet aggregation in PRP with a rapid onset (<0.5 h) and long duration (>3 days) of action (ED(50) at 4 h=1.2 mg kg(-1)). 4. R-99224 (IC(50)=45 microM) inhibited in vitro PRP aggregation in a concentration-related manner. 5. CS-747 prevented thrombus formation in a dose-related manner with an ED(50) value of 0.68 mg kg(-1). CS-747 was more potent than clopidogrel (6.2 mg kg(-1)) and ticlopidine (>300 mg kg(-1)). 6. CS-747, clopidogrel, and ticlopidine prolonged the bleeding time. The order of potency of these agents in this activity was the same as that in antiaggregatory and antithrombotic activities. 7. These findings indicate that CS-747 is an orally active and a potent antiplatelet and antithrombotic agent with a rapid onset and long duration of action, and warrants clinical evaluations of the agent.  (+info)

Thiolactomycin and related analogues as novel anti-mycobacterial agents targeting KasA and KasB condensing enzymes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (58/1894)

Prevention efforts and control of tuberculosis are seriously hampered by the appearance of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dictating new approaches to the treatment of the disease. Thiolactomycin (TLM) is a unique thiolactone that has been shown to exhibit anti-mycobacterial activity by specifically inhibiting fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis. In this study, we present evidence that TLM targets two beta-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthases, KasA and KasB, consistent with the fact that both enzymes belong to the fatty-acid synthase type II system involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of KasA, KasB, and KasAB in Mycobacterium bovis BCG increased in vivo and in vitro resistance against TLM. In addition, a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate was also found to be highly sensitive to TLM, indicating promise in counteracting multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. The design and synthesis of several TLM derivatives have led to compounds more potent both in vitro against fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis and in vivo against M. tuberculosis. Finally, a three-dimensional structural model of KasA has also been generated to improve understanding of the catalytic site of mycobacterial Kas proteins and to provide a more rational approach to the design of new drugs.  (+info)

Specialized fatty acid synthesis in African trypanosomes: myristate for GPI anchors. (59/1894)

African trypanosomes, the cause of sleeping sickness, need massive amounts of myristate to remodel glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors on their surface glycoproteins. However, it has been believed that the parasite is unable to synthesize any fatty acids, and myristate is not abundant in the hosts' bloodstreams. Thus, it has been unclear how trypanosomes meet their myristate requirement. Here we found that they could indeed synthesize fatty acids. The synthetic pathway was unique in that the major product, myristate, was preferentially incorporated into GPIs and not into other lipids. The antibiotic thiolactomycin inhibited myristate synthesis and killed the parasite, making this pathway a potential chemotherapeutic target.  (+info)

Open label, multi-centre phase II study of raltitrexed ('Tomudex') in patients with inoperable squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck. (60/1894)

BACKGROUND: Raltitrexed ('Tomudex') is a folate based inhibitor of thymidylate synthase which has been registered in Europe and Australia for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. In a European phase I trial of raltitrexed anti-tumour activity was seen in two patients with head and neck cancer, prompting the current study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From November 1996 to December 1998, 24 patients with metastatic or recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck from 7 Australian centres received raltitrexed, 3 mg/m2 given intravenously over 15 minutes every 3 weeks, for a maximum of 6 cycles. Patients were required to be chemotherapy naive and have measurable disease, age > 18 years, WHO performance status initially < or = 2, no significant intercurrent illness or organ dysfunction and a life expectancy > 12 weeks. RESULTS: Twenty-two men and two women, median age 65 years, median performance status 1 were enrolled. Fifteen patients (63%) had received both prior surgery and radiotherapy. In 15 patients (63%) there was recurrent locoregional disease only. Twelve patients (50%) received one cycle of treatment with only four patients (17%) receiving four or more cycles of treatment. No patient achieved a complete or partial response, although 5 patients experienced stable disease which lasted a median of 188 days (range 61-436). The median survival for the whole group was 101 days (range 20436). Raltitrexed was generally well tolerated with minimal antiproliferative toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Single-agent raltitrexed does not demonstrate significant anti-tumour response rates in patients with predominantly locally recurrent head and neck cancer.  (+info)

Effect of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition on pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis: an additive strategy for cancer control. (61/1894)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, BB-94, on the viability, invasion, and metastases of pancreatic cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Inhibitors of MMPs, enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix, have been tested as single chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Capan1 and AsPC1 cell lines were studied. BB-94 cytotoxicity was evaluated by cell proliferation assays. Production of MMP2 and MMP9 in conditioned media was demonstrated by gelatin zymography. The in vitro effect of BB-94 on cell invasion was assayed using invasion chambers. Hepatic metastases from pancreatic cancer were induced by intrasplenic injections of Capan1 or AsPC1 cells in nude mice. The in vivo effect of BB-94 on liver metastases was evaluated by comparing animals receiving BB-94 treatment with controls receiving vehicle alone. Variables measured included death rate and tumor burden (liver-to-body weight ratio). RESULTS: BB-94 was not cytotoxic between 3 and 3,000 ng/mL. Zymography demonstrated production of MMP2 and MMP9 by both cell lines, with complete inhibition of these enzymes by BB-94 at 48 ng/mL. Invasion chamber assays showed that BB-94 (48-400 ng/mL) impeded cell invasion in vitro compared with untreated controls. In vivo, BB-94 prevented death or reduced the death rate from hepatic metastases in animals injected with Capan1 or AsPC1 cells. BB-94 treatment resulted in significant reductions in hepatic tumor burden compared with untreated controls. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of MMP reduces both growth of pancreatic cancer metastases and the death rate. These actions do not reflect cytotoxicity but rather result from impaired cancer cell attachment, migration, and organ invasion. MMP inhibitors may provide an additive effect to cytotoxic agents in multidimensional treatment regimens for pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

Structural basis for selectivity of a small molecule, S1-binding, submicromolar inhibitor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. (62/1894)

BACKGROUND: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a protease associated with tumor metastasis and invasion. Inhibitors of uPA may have potential as drugs for prostate, breast and other cancers. Therapeutically useful inhibitors must be selective for uPA and not appreciably inhibit the related, and structurally and functionally similar enzyme, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), involved in the vital blood-clotting cascade. RESULTS: We produced mutagenically deglycosylated low molecular weight uPA and determined the crystal structure of its complex with 4-iodobenzo[b]thiophene 2-carboxamidine (K(i) = 0.21 +/- 0.02 microM). To probe the structural determinants of the affinity and selectivity of this inhibitor for uPA we also determined the structures of its trypsin and thrombin complexes, of apo-trypsin, apo-thrombin and apo-factor Xa, and of uPA, trypsin and thrombin bound by compounds that are less effective uPA inhibitors, benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamidine, thieno[2,3-b]-pyridine-2-carboxamidine and benzamidine. The K(i) values of each inhibitor toward uPA, tPA, trypsin, tryptase, thrombin and factor Xa were determined and compared. One selectivity determinant of the benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamidines for uPA involves a hydrogen bond at the S1 site to Ogamma(Ser190) that is absent in the Ala190 proteases, tPA, thrombin and factor Xa. Other subtle differences in the architecture of the S1 site also influence inhibitor affinity and enzyme-bound structure. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle structural differences in the S1 site of uPA compared with that of related proteases, which result in part from the presence of a serine residue at position 190, account for the selectivity of small thiophene-2-carboxamidines for uPA, and afford a framework for structure-based design of small, potent, selective uPA inhibitors.  (+info)

In vivo effects of the 5-HT(6) antagonist SB-271046 on striatal and frontal cortex extracellular concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, 5-HT, glutamate and aspartate. (63/1894)

Although the 5-HT(6) receptor subtype was identified some 5 years ago, very little is known about its function within the brain. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the neurochemical effects of a selective 5-HT(6) receptor ligand. Using in vivo microdialysis in the freely moving rat, we evaluated the effects of the selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-271046 by simultaneous measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), glutamate and aspartate from the striatum and frontal cortex. SB-271046 did not alter basal levels of 5-HT, DA and NA in either brain region. Similarly, there was no change basal levels of either of the excitatory amino acids within the striatum. In contrast, administration of SB-271046 (10 mg kg(-1) s.c.) produced a significant (P<0.05), tetrodotoxin-dependent, increase in extracellular levels of both glutamate and aspartate within the frontal cortex, reaching maximum values of 375.4+/-82.3 and 215. 3+/-62.1% of preinjection values, respectively.  (+info)

Murine cytomegalovirus stimulates cellular thymidylate synthase gene expression in quiescent cells and requires the enzyme for replication. (64/1894)

Herpesviruses accomplish DNA replication either by expressing their own deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic genes or by stimulating the expression of the corresponding cellular genes. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has adopted the latter strategy to allow efficient replication in quiescent cells. In the present report, we show that murine CMV (MCMV) infection of quiescent fibroblasts induces both mRNA and protein corresponding to the cellular thymidylate synthase (TS) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the de novo synthesis of thymidylic acid. The increase in TS gene expression was due to an increase in gene transcription, since the activity of a reporter gene driven by the mouse TS promoter was induced following MCMV infection. Mutagenesis of the potential E2F-responsive element immediately upstream from the TS essential promoter region abolished the virus-mediated stimulation of the TS promoter, suggesting that the transactivating activity of MCMV infection was E2F dependent. Cotransfection experiments revealed that expression of the viral immediate-early 1 protein was sufficient to mediate the increase in TS promoter activity. Finally, MCMV replication and viral DNA synthesis were found to be inhibited by ZD1694, a quinazoline-based folate analog that inhibits TS activity. These results demonstrate that upregulation of cellular TS expression is required for efficient MCMV replication in quiescent cells.  (+info)