Adjuvant or palliative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer in patients 70 years or older. (41/1894)

PURPOSE: The surgical treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) in elderly patients (age 70 years or older) has improved, but data on adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy tolerability and benefits in this growing population remain scarce. Elderly patients are underrepresented in clinical trials, and results for older patients are seldom reported separately. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a prospective database, we analyzed demographics, chemotherapy toxicity, response rates, failure-free survival (FFS), and overall survival (OS) of CRC patients receiving chemotherapy at the Royal Marsden Hospital. The cutoff age was 70 years. RESULTS: A total of 844 patients received first-line chemotherapy with various fluorouracil (5-FU)-containing regimens or raltitrexed for advanced disease, and 543 patients were administered adjuvant, protracted venous infusion 5-FU or bolus 5-FU/folinic acid (FA) chemotherapy. Of the 1,387 patients, 310 were 70 years or older. There was no difference in overall or severe (Common Toxicity Criteria III to IV) toxicity between the two age groups, with the exception of more frequent severe mucositis in older patients receiving adjuvant bolus 5-FU/FA. For patients receiving palliative chemotherapy, no difference in response rates (24% v 29%, P =.19) and median FFS (164 v 168 days) were detected when the elderly were compared with younger patients. Median OS was 292 days for the elderly group and 350 days for the younger patients (P =.04), and 1-year survival was 44% and 48%, respectively. The length of inpatient hospital stay was identical. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with good performance status tolerated adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy for CRC as well as did younger patients and had similar benefits from palliative chemotherapy.  (+info)

Membrane type 4 matrix metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP, MMP-17) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteinase. (42/1894)

Among the five membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs), MT1-, MT2-, MT3-, and MT5-MMPs have about a 20-amino acid cytoplasmic tail following the transmembrane domain. In contrast, a putative transmembrane domain of MT4-MMP locates at the very C-terminal end, and the expected cytoplasmic tail is very short or nonexistent. Such sequences often act as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring signal rather than as a transmembrane domain. We thus examined the possibility that MT4-MMP is a GPI-anchored proteinase. Our results showed that [(3)H]ethanolamine, which can be incorporated into the GPI unit, specifically labeled the MT4-MMP C-terminal end in a sequence-dependent manner. In addition, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C treatment released the MT4-MMP from the surface of transfected cells. These results indicate that MT4-MMP is the first GPI-anchored proteinase in the MMP family. During cultivation of the transfected cells, MT4-MMP appeared to be shed from the cell surface by the action of an endogenous metalloproteinase. GPI anchoring of MT4-MMP on the cell surface indicates a unique biological function and character for this proteinase.  (+info)

Matrix metalloproteinase homologues from Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression and activity. (43/1894)

Five genes potentially encoding novel matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been identified on the Arabidopsis thaliana data base. The predicted proteins have a similar domain structure to mammalian MMP-7, with a propeptide and catalytic domain but no C-terminal hemopexin-like domain. Four of the A. thaliana MMPs (At-MMPs) have a predicted C-terminal transmembrane domain. The At-MMPs are differentially expressed in flower, leaf, root, and stem tissues from 14-day-old plants. The cDNA for one of the At-MMPs (At1-MMP) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Following refolding and purification, the proenzyme At1-MMP was shown to undergo autolytic activation in the presence of an organomercurial with a concomitant decrease in M(r). In contrast to this, trypsin-treatment led to the formation of an inactive product. The activated At1-MMP digested myelin basic protein, but was unable to digest gelatin or casein. Three peptide substrates for MMPs were also cleaved by At1-MMP. The enzyme activity of At1-MMP was inhibited by human tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 and the hydroxamate inhibitor BB-94.  (+info)

Reduced facilitation and vesicular uptake in crustacean and mammalian neuromuscular junction by T-588, a neuroprotective compound. (44/1894)

Bath application of compound T-588, a neuroprotective agent, reduced paired-pulse and repetitive-pulse facilitation at mammalian and crustacean neuromuscular junctions. In addition, it reduced voltage-gated sodium and potassium currents in a use-dependent fashion, but had only a small effect on the presynaptic Ca(2+) conductance. By contrast, it blocked FM 1-43 vesicular uptake but not its release, in both species. Postsynaptically, T-588 reduced acetylcholine currents at the mammalian junction in a voltage-independent manner, but had no effect on the crayfish glutamate junction. All of these effects were rapidly reversible and were observed at concentrations close to the compound's acute protective level. We propose that this set of mechanisms, which reduces high-frequency synaptic transmission, is an important contributory factor in the neuroprotective action of T-588.  (+info)

The complexed structure and antimicrobial activity of a non-beta-lactam inhibitor of AmpC beta-lactamase. (45/1894)

Beta-lactamases are the major resistance mechanism to beta-lactam antibiotics and pose a growing threat to public health. Recently, bacteria have become resistant to beta-lactamase inhibitors, making this problem pressing. In an effort to overcome this resistance, non-beta-lactam inhibitors of beta-lactamases were investigated for complementarity to the structure of AmpC beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. This led to the discovery of an inhibitor, benzo(b)thiophene-2-boronic acid (BZBTH2B), which inhibited AmpC with a Ki of 27 nM. This inhibitor is chemically dissimilar to beta-lactams, raising the question of what specific interactions are responsible for its activity. To answer this question, the X-ray crystallographic structure of BZBTH2B in complex with AmpC was determined to 2.25 A resolution. The structure reveals several unexpected interactions. The inhibitor appears to complement the conserved, R1-amide binding region of AmpC, despite lacking an amide group. Interactions between one of the boronic acid oxygen atoms, Tyr150, and an ordered water molecule suggest a mechanism for acid/base catalysis and a direction for hydrolytic attack in the enzyme catalyzed reaction. To investigate how a non-beta-lactam inhibitor would perform against resistant bacteria, BZBTH2B was tested in antimicrobial assays. BZBTH2B significantly potentiated the activity of a third-generation cephalosporin against AmpC-producing resistant bacteria. This inhibitor was unaffected by two common resistance mechanisms that often arise against beta-lactams in conjunction with beta-lactamases. Porin channel mutations did not decrease the efficacy of BZBTH2B against cells expressing AmpC. Also, this inhibitor did not induce expression of AmpC, a problem with many beta-lactams. The structure of the BZBTH2B/AmpC complex provides a starting point for the structure-based elaboration of this class of non-beta-lactam inhibitors.  (+info)

The Arthus reaction in rodents: species-specific requirement of complement. (46/1894)

We induced reverse passive Arthus (RPA) reactions in the skin of rodents and found that the contribution of complement to immune complex-mediated inflammation is species specific. Complement was found to be necessary in rats and guinea pigs but not in C57BL/6J mice. In rats, within 4 h after initiation of an RPA reaction, serum alternative pathway hemolytic titers decreased significantly below basal levels, whereas classical pathway titers were unchanged. Thus the dermal reaction proceeds coincident with systemic activation of complement. The serine protease inhibitor BCX 1470, which blocks the esterolytic and hemolytic activities of the complement enzymes Cls and factor D in vitro, also blocked development of RPA-induced edema in the rat. These data support the proposal that complement-mediated processes are of major importance in the Arthus reaction in rats and guinea pigs, and suggest that BCX 1470 will be useful as an anti-inflammatory agent in diseases where complement activation is known to be detrimental.  (+info)

Site-specific incorporation of nucleoside analogs by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the template grip mutant P157S. Template interactions influence substrate recognition at the polymerase active site. (47/1894)

Studies of drug-resistant reverse transcriptases (RTs) reveal the roles of specific structural elements and amino acids in polymerase function. To characterize better the effects of RT/template interactions on dNTP substrate recognition, we examined the sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RT containing a new mutation in a "template grip" residue (P157S) to the 5'-triphosphates of (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC), (-)-beta-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'-thiacytidine (FTC), and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). A primer extension assay was used to monitor quantitatively drug monophosphate incorporation opposite each of multiple target sites. Wild-type and P157S RTs had similar catalytic activities and processivities on heteropolymeric RNA and DNA templates. When averaged over multiple template sites, P157S RT was 2-7-fold resistant to the 5'-triphosphates of 3TC, FTC, and AZT. Each drug triphosphate inhibited polymerization more efficiently on the DNA template compared with an RNA template of identical sequence. Moreover, chain termination by 3TC and FTC was strongly influenced by template sequence context. Incorporation of FTC and 3TC monophosphate varied up to 10-fold opposite 7 different G residues in the DNA template, and the P157S mutation altered this site specificity. In summary, these data identify Pro(157) as an important residue affecting nucleoside analog resistance and suggest that interactions between RT and the template strand influence dNTP substrate recognition at the RT active site. Our findings are discussed within the context of the HIV-1 RT structure.  (+info)

Developmental change in GABAA receptor desensitization kinetics and its role in synapse function in rat cortical neurons. (48/1894)

We examined the maturation of GABAA receptor synapses in cortical pyramidal neurons cultured from embryonic rats. The decay kinetics of GABAA receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs) were compared with those of responses evoked by GABA in excised membrane patches. Fast perfusion of 1 or 10 mM GABA on membrane patches evoked currents with different desensitizing time courses in young and old neurons. For neurons older than 4 days in vitro (DIV), GABAA currents had a fast component of desensitization (median approximately 3 ms) seldom seen in patches from younger neurons. In contrast, mPSCs exhibited a substantial fast component of decay at 2-4 DIV that became more prominent with further development although the median value of its time constant remained unchanged. The selective alpha3 subunit positive modulator SB-205384 had no effect on mPSCs at any time in vitro but potentiated extrasynaptic activity. This suggests that synapse maturation does not proceed by a gradual exchange of early embryonic GABAA receptor subforms for adult forms. At all ages, the kinetic properties of mPSCs were heterogeneous. This heterogeneity extended to the level of mPSCs from single neurons and may be a normal aspect of synaptic functioning. These results suggest that inhibitory synapses in developing neurons are capable of selectively capturing GABAA receptors having fast desensitization kinetics. This functional preference probably reflects the developmental turning point from an inwardly looking trophic capacity of embryonic GABAA receptors to a role concerned with information processing.  (+info)